Tuesday, 10 January 2017


PAST PAPERS - YEAR 1971 - 2016

1. YEAR 1971
1. Make a precis of the following passage in about 250 words. 
      The essence of poetry that it deals with events which concern a large number of people and can be grasped not as immediate personal experience but as matter known largely from heresy and presented in simplified and often abstract forms. It is thus the antithesis of all poetry which deals with the special, individual activity of the self and tries to present this as specially and as individually as it can. The poet who deals with public themes may himself be affected, even deeply, by contemporary events at some point in his own being, but to see them in their breadth and depth he must rely largely on what he hears from other men and from mass instruments of communication. From the start of his impulse to write about them is different from any impulse to write about his own affairs. It may be just as strong and just as compelling, but it is not of the same kind. He has to give his own version of something which millions of others may share with him, and however individual he may wish to be, he cannot avoid relying to a large extent on much that he knows only from second hand. 
     Fundamentally this may not matter, for after all what else did Shakespeare do: but the political poet does not construct an imaginary past; he attempts to grasp and interpret a vast present. Between him and his subject there is a gap which can never completely cross, and all his attempts to make events part of himself must be to some extent hampered by recalcitrant elements in them, which he does not understand or cannot assimilate or find irrelevant to his creative task. In such poetry selection which is indispensable to all art, has to be made from an unusually large field of possibilities and guided by an exacting sense of what really matters and what does not. On one side he may try to include too much and lose himself in issues where he is not imaginatively at home, on the other side he may see some huge event merely from a private angle which need not mean much to others. Political poetry oscillates between these extremes, and its history in our time has been largely attempts to make the best of one or the other of them or to see what compromises can be made between them.
2. Rewrite the following poem in simple prose and then comment on the differences between the poetic achievement in the poem and the literal rendering in prose made by you. 
War is not a life, it is a situation,
One which may neither be ignored or accepted
A problem to be met with ambush and stratagem,
Enveloped or scattered
The enduring is not a substitute for the transient
Neither one for the other. But the abstract conception
Of private experience as its greatest intensity
Becoming universal which we call "poetry"
May be affirmed in verse.
3, (a) Use the following words in at least TWO senses, either as a verb or as a noun or as an adjective or as both
(i) Clear
(ii) Face
(iii) Energy
(iv) Value
(v) Build
(b) Use the following idiomatic expressions in illustrative sentences. 
(i) Carry out
(ii) Taken over
(iii) Bring about
(iv) Beat out
(v) Bear with
4. "The unity of a country depends on the historical consciousness of its people of a common past, but it depends more on the acceptance by people of common value-system on which their future is based." Discuss 
Suggest ways and means of removing bitterness and improving good relationship between East and West Pakistan. 
5. Analyse the causes of Youth Rebellion in the world today and suggest ways and means of removing those causes.
"West is West and East is East
And Never the twain shall meet?
Write an imaginary conversation between Kipling and a highly modernized Pakistani who has seen how modern technologically oriented Western Civilization completely changing the attitude of a modern man. 

2. YEAR 1972
1. Make a precis of the following passage in about 250 words.
     Up to a point the second German War resembled the first. Each began with a German bid for power which almost succeeded in spite of the opposition of France and Great Britain. In each the United State came to the rescue after years of neutrality. Each ended with a German defeat. But the differences were easier to see than the resemblances. The powers were differently grouped.
     Italy and Japan were on the German side, Russia was neutral until the Germans attacked across what had been, to begin with, Poland and Baltic States. The second war lasted even longer than the other. It pressed harder on the civilian population. After a period of restraint, perhaps, intended to conciliate American opinion, both sides dropped bombs from the air, without respect for the nature of the targets, wherever the officers concerned expected to cause the greatest effect. In Great Britain, 60,000 civilians were killed. Though the Island was not invaded, the population was more directly involved than it was in any former war. Children and others were evacuated from towns into the country. Food supplies ran so short that, at the worst, even potatoes were rationed. All of the states opposed to Germany, Great Britain was the only one which fought throughout the war. The resources of the nation were concentrated in the war effort more completely than those of any other nation on either side. Labour for women as well as men, became compulsory. Nevertheless, once the war reached its full severity in the west, eight months after it was declared, there was less disunion between classes and interests than in any other five years within living memory.
     Fighting spread all over the world. The Pacific was as vital a theatre as Europe. Scientists, especially Physicists, made revolutionary discoveries during the war, not only in the fields of weapons and defense against them, but also in supply, transport, and control in action. Strange to say the fight services suffered fewer casualties than in 1914-18: 300,000 of the armed forces and 35,000 of the navy were killed. There was nothing like the trench warfare of former war, though there was almost every other sort of warfare, from mechanized war of movement in the North Africa desert to hand to hand jungle fighting in Burma. Both sides experimented and built ip stocks for gas-warfare and biological warfare, but neither side used them. (George Clark: English History: A Survey)
2. Rewrite the following poem in simple prose and then comment on the differences between the poetic achievement in the poem and the literal rendering in prose made by you. 
The force that through the green fuse drives the flower
Drives my green age, that blasts the roots of trees
Is my destroyer,
And I am dumb to tell the crooked rose.
My youth is bent by the same wintry fever.
The force that drives the water through the rocks.
Drives my red blood, that drives the mouthing streams,
Turns mine to max.

And I am dumb to mouth unto my veins
How at the mountains spring the same mouth sucks.
The hand that whirls the water in the pool.
Stirs the quicksand, that ropes the blowing wind,
Hauls my shroud sail,
And I am dumb to tell the hanging man,
How of my clay is made the hangman's lime.
The lips of time leech to the fountain head.
Love drips and gathers, but the fallen blood,
Small calm her sores.
And I am dumb to tell a weather's wind,
How time has ticked a heaven round the stars.
And I am dumb to tell the lover's tomb,
How at my sheet goes the same crooked worm
(Dylan Thomas)
3. (a) Distinguish between the meaning of the words in the following pairs, and use them in illustrative sentences. 
(i) Consciousness, Conscientiousness
(ii) Ingenious, Ingenuous
(iii) Fantastic, Fanatical
(iv) Honourable, Honorary
(v) Politician, Statesman
(b) Use the following expressions in sentences to bring out their meanings. 
(i) To fall back on something
(ii) To fall through
(iii) On right earnest
(iv) Vested interests
(v) Meaningful Dialogue
4. Write a dialogue between a C.S.P. officer and a young man aspiring to become one on how to improve civil administration in Pakistan. 
(a) Religion is the only force that can keep our people together.
(b) But it seems to have failed to do so in our country. 
Continue the discussion. 
5. List, with brief amplification, what you regard as the FIVE most serious problems before the Government of Pakistan. 
"In the opinion of this house Regionalism is greatest hindrance in the way of our national progress". 
Write a speech for or against the above mentioned.

3. YEAR 1973
1. Make a precis of the following passage in about 250 words.
     As a kind of foot-note I should comment that there are those who doubt whether it is within the power of science to ensure over a prolonged period of freedom from destitution and famine for mankind. The argument is the old one of Malthus, that in the race between increasing population and increasing production, population must eventually win. Those of us who decline to accept this pessimistic view recognize the difficulty of the practical problem of meeting the needs of an ever-expanding population. We have, however, greater faith in human resourcefulness. We note that it is not only in the technology of production and medicine that the present generation differs so greatly from the one before. A similar rapid change is likewise occurring in the thinking of masses of people. This change is brought about partly by experience with technology and partly by more widespread education. Here lies a new realm in which dramatic advance is being made.
     The hope for the longer future lies in a growing understanding of the conditions for the good life of man in a world of science and technology, and the acceptance of a morality that is consistent with these conditions. With the widespread thought now being given to such problems by persons whose thinking is schooled to rely on reason and tested fact. It is evident that advance from this angle will also appear. Youth may, for example, consider these remarks as an effort to see in truer perspective the type of ideals that are appropriate to the age of science. Many are those who are now sharing to this exploration of human values.
     The great question is whether such understanding of human goals and the corresponding development of morals can be achieved before the forces seen by Malthus, and emphasized so forcefully by recent writers, overwhelm the efforts of the pioneers in this new and critical field. I do not believe that this is inevitable. I am confident of man's ability to meet and solve this ethical problem that is so vital to the success of his effort to achieve physical and spiritual freedom,
     It is relevant that as I analyse the reasons for my faith in man's eventual ability to meet this critical problems. I find that prominent in my mind is the confidence that God Who made us holds for us an increasing density, to be achieved through our own efforts in the world setting that he supplies. This observation is significant in the present setting because it is my strong impression that most of those who have the firm faith in man's advancement likewise have a religious basis of their faith. If this impression is valid its consequence is clear. It means that it is men and women of religious faith on whom we must primarily rely to work strongly toward achieving a favourable world society. It means also that those of religious faith because of their faith have a better chance of survival, a fact that has a bearing on the attitude that may be expected in the society of the future.
2. Render the following poem in simple prose and comment on the difference in the effective use of language between the poem and its prose version by you. 
Fair daffodils, we weep to see
You haste away so soon,
As yet the early rising sun
Has not attained his noon
Stay, stay,
Until the hasting day
Has run
But to the even-song,
And having prayed together, we
Will go with you along
We have short time to stay, as you,
We have a short a spring;
As quick a growth to meet decay,
As you, or anything,
We die,
As your Hours do, and dry
Like to summer's rain
Or as the pearls of morning dew,
Ne'er to be found again.
(Robert Herrick) 
3. (a) Each of the following words has more than one meaning. Choose any FIVE of them and by using them in at least two sentences each indicates what these different meanings are:
(i) Report
(ii) Ruler
(iii) Point
(iv) Wear
(v) Glasses
(vi) Vessel
(vii) Stage
(viii) Spirit
(b) Use any FIVE of the following idiomatic expressions in your own sentences to illustrate their meaning.
(i) Turn to Account
(ii) To beat the air
(iii) To break the lance with
(iv) To foul of
(v) To keep open door
(vi) To put out of countenance
(vii) Got up to kill
(viii) To have a finger in the pie
4. "It is my invincible belief that science and peace will triumph over ignorance and war, that notion will eventually unite not destroy but build, and that the future will belong to those who will have done most for suffering humanity". 
Expand this in a paragraph of about 120 words giving examples and arguments in support of Pasture's belief. 
Suggest what the people of this country can do themselves to remedy social evils. 
5. "Asghar is now twenty-two," she tells her husband, "It's time you should thought of his marriage lest the boy starts keeping bad company." Mir Nihal clears his throat and says: 
"Yes, I was going to speak to you about him myself. Has he gone to sleep?" No. He went out after dinner and has not come back yet". 
(Ahmad Ali: Twilight in Delhi)
Develop this conversation between Mir Nihal and Begum Nihal about their son Asghar and his marriage in order to give an impression of the customs and manners of Muslims in Indo-Pak Sub-Continent.
Write a critical review of the marriage customs of your region or tribe or family, etc. 
4. YEAR 1974
1. Make a precis of the following passage in about 200 words.
     Man is pre-eminently an animal good at gadgets. However, there is reason for doubting his good judgement in their utilization.
     Perhaps the first chemical process which man employed for his own service was combustion. First utilized to warm naked and chilled bodies, it was then discovered to be effective for scaring off nocturnal beasts of prey and an admirable agent for the preparation and preservation of food. Much later came the discovery that fire could be used in extracting and working metals and last of all that it could be employed to generate power. In ancient times man began to use fire as a weapon, beginning with incendiary torches and arrow and proceeding to explosives, which have been developed principally for the destruction of human beings and their works.
     In the control and utilization of gases, the achievements of our species have not been commendable. One might begin with air, which man breathes in common with other terrestrial vertebrates. He differs from other animals in that he seems incapable of selecting the right kind of air for breathing. Man is for ever doing things, which foul the air and poisoning himself by his own stupidity. He pens himself up in a limited air space and suffocates; he manufactures noxious gases which accidentally or intentionally displace the air and remove him from the ranks of the living; he has been completely unable to filter the air of the disease germs, which he breathes to his detriment; he and all his works are powerless to prevent a hurricane or to withstand its force. Man has indeed been able to utilize the power of moving air currents to a limited extent and to imitate the flight of birds, with the certainty of eventually breaking his neck if he tries it.
     Man uses water much in the same way as other animals; he has to drink it constantly, washes in it frequently, and drowns in it occasionally -- probably oftener than other terrestrial vertebrates. Without water, he dies as miserably as any other beast and with too much of it, as in floods, he is equally unable to cope. However, he excels other animals in that he has learned to utilize water power.
   But it is rather man's lack of judgement in the exercise of control of natural resources which would disgust critics of higher intelligence, although it would not surprise the apes. Man observes that the wood of trees is serviceable and recklessly denudes the earth of forests, insofar as he is able, He finds that the meat and skins of the bison are valuable and immediately goes to work to exterminate the bison. He allows his grazing animals to strip the turf from the soil so that it is blown away and fertile places become deserts. He clears for cultivation and exhausts the rich land by stupid planting. He goes into wholesale production of food, cereals, fruits and livestock and allows the fruits of his labour to rot or to starve because he has not provided any adequate method of distributing them or because no one can pay for them. He invents machines which do the work of many men, and is perplexed by the many men who are out of work. It would be hard to convince judges of human conduct that man is not an economic fool.
2, Write a prose version of the following poem in simple English and then comment on the differences in the language of both the poem and its prose version. 
Without that once clear aim, the path of flight
To follow for a life-time though white air;
This century chokes me under roots of night;
I suffer like history in Dark Ages, where
Truth lies in dungeons, from which drifts on whisper;
We hear of towers long broken off from sight
And tortures and war, in dark and smoky rumour,
But on man's buried lives there falls no light.
Watch me who walks through coiling streets where rain
And fog down every cry; and corners of day
Road drills explore new areas of pain,
Nor summer nor light may reach down here to play
The city builds its horror in my brain,
This writing is my only wings away.
3. (a) Distinguish between the meaning of the words in the following pairs, and use them in sentences to illustrate;
(i) Grateful, Gratified
(ii) Imaginary, Imaginative
(iii) Negligent, Negligible
(iv) Placable, Placeable
(v) Restive, Restless
(b) Use any FIVE of the following idioms in your own sentences to illustrate their meaning. 
(i) When all is said and done
(ii) An axe to grind
(iii) Turn a new leaf
(iv) Burn the candle at both ends
(v) Leave in the lurer
(vi) Goes with saying
(vii) Like a red rag to a bull
(ix) Not a leg to stand on
(x) Under the thumb of
(xi) The writing on the wall
4. Develop the following question into a paragraph of about 120 words. 
"The worst sin towards our fellow creatures is not to hate them, but to be indifferent to them; that's the essence of humanity". 
(G.W. Shaw in The Devil's Disciple, Act II)
Give a brief but complete statement of your ideals and dreams of life in simple English. 
5. List, with some amplification that steps that the Government of Pakistan should take in order to check inflation and rising prices in the country. 
Compose a short speech for a Forum on international understanding and goodwill. 
5. YEAR 1975
1. Make a precis of the following passage in about 200 words.
     What virtues must we require of a man to whom we entrust directing of our affairs? Above all, a sense of what is possible. In politics, it is useless to formulate great and noble projects if, due to the existing state of the country, they cannot be accomplished. The impulses of a free people are at all times a parallelogram of forces The great statesman realizes precisely what these forces are and says to himself without ever being seriously mistaken: "I can go just so far and no further". He does not allow himself to favour one class, foreseeing the inevitable reactions of the neglected groups. A prudent doctor does not cure his patient of a passing complaint with a remedy that produces a permanent diseases of the liver; and a judicious statesman neither appeases the working class at the risk of angering the bourgeoisie, nor does he indulge the bourgeoisie at the expense of the working class. He endeavours to regard the nation as a great living body whose organs are interdependent. He takes the temperature of public opinion every day, and if the fever increases he sees to it that the country rests.
     Though he may fully appreciate the power of public opinion, a forceful and clever statesman realizes that he can influence it fairly easily. He has calculated the people's power to remain indifferent to his efforts; they have their moment of violence, and their angry protests are legitimate if the Government brings poverty on them, takes away their traditional liberty, or seriously interferes with their home life. But they will allow themselves to be led by a man who knows where he is going and who shows them clearly that he has the nation's interest at heart and that they may have confidence in him.
     The sense of what is possible is not only the ability to recognize that certain things are impossible -- a negative virtue -- but also to know that, to a courageous man, things which may appear to be very difficult are in fact possible. A great statesman does not say to himself: "This nation is weak," but "This nation is asleep; I shall wake it up. Laws and institutions are of the people's making; if necessary, I shall change them".
     But above all, the determination to do something must be followed by acts, not merely words. Mediocre politicians spend most of their time devising schemes and preaching doctrines. They talk of structural reforms, they invent faultless social systems and formulate plans for perpetual peace. In his public speeches the true statesman knows how, if necessary, to make polite bows to new theories and to pronounce ritualistic phrases for the benefit of those who guard temple gates; but he actually occupies himself by taking care of the real needs of the nation. He endeavours to accomplish definite and precise objectives in ways that seem best to him. If he finds obstacles in his path, he makes detours. Vanity, intellectual pride, and a feeling for system are serious handicaps to the politicians. Some party leaders are ready to sacrifice the country for a theory or a set of principles. The true leader says: "Let the principles go but I must save the nation".
2. Read the following poem in simple prose and comment on the difference in the effective use of language between the poem and its prose version by you. 
Since brass, not stone, nor earth, nor boundless sea.
But sad morality o'er-sways their power,
How with this range shall beauty hold a plea.
O, how shall summer's honey breath hold out
Against the wreckful  siege of battering days,
When rocks impregnable are not so stout,
Nor gates of steel so strong, but Time decays?
O, fearful meditation, where, alack
Shall time's best jewel from time's chest lie hid?
Or what strong hand can hold his swift foot back?
Or who his spoil of beauty can forbid?
O, none, unless this miracle have might,
That in black ink my Love may still shine bright,
3. (a) Distinguish between the meaning of the words in the following pairs and use them in sentences to indicate what these different meanings are:
(i) Amiable, Amicable
(ii) Considerable, Considerate
(iii) Ingenuous, Ingenious
(iv) Momentary, Momentous
(v) Virtuous, Virtual
(b) Use any FIVE of the following idioms in your own sentences to illustrate their meaning.
(i) To sow one's wild oats
(ii) Storm in a tea cup
(iii) to keep late Hours to throw cold water on
(iv) A cock-and-bull story
(v) To bear the brunt of
(vi) Tied to apron-strings of
(vii) To move heaven and earth
(viii) To blow one's own trumpet
(ix) To rest on one's laurels
4. Develop the following quotation into a paragraph of each about 120 words.
"At critical moments in their history it is Islam that saved Muslims and not vice versa". 
Write a complete character-sketch of the man or the woman who has impressed you in the most in your life. 
5. Pakistan has yet to produce a scientist of international calibre. Pinpoint the factors which, in your opinion, are responsible for this poor showing of ours in the field of science and suggest concrete measures which the Government and our Universities should take to help Pakistan scientists make solid contributions in their respective fields, 
Discuss in depth and detail what conditions are conducive to the growth of regionalism and provincialism -- the two great menaces to national solidarity -- and how they can best be eliminated. 
6. YEAR 1976
1. Make a precis of the following extract.
     The present-day industrial establishment is a great distance removed from that of the last century or even of twenty-five years ago. This improvement has been the result of a variety of forces --- government standards and factory inspection: general technological and agricultural advance by substituting machine power for heavy or repetitive manual, labour, the need to compete for a labour force: and union intervention to improve working conditions in addition to wages and Hours.
     However, except where the improvement contributed to increased productivity, the effort to make more pleasant has to do support a large burden of proof. It was permissible to seek the elimination of hazardous, unsanitary, unhealthful, or otherwise objectionable conditions of work. The speedup might be resisted to a point. But the test was not what was agreeable but what was unhealthful or at minimum, excessively fatiguing. The trend toward increased leisure is not reprehensible, but we resist vigorously that notion that a man should work less hard on the job. Here older attitudes are involved. We are gravely suspicious of any tendency to expand less than the maximum effort, for this has long been a prime economic virtue.
     In strict logic there is as much to be said for making work pleasant and agreeable as for shortening Hours. On the whole it is probably as important for a wage-earner to have pleasant working conditions as a pleasant home. To a degree, he can escape the latter but not the former --- though not doubt the line between an agreeable tempo and what is flagrant feather-bedding is difficult to draw.
     Moreover, it is a commonplace of the industrial scene that the dreariest and most burdensome tasks, require as they do a minimum of though and skill frequently have the largest number of takers. The solution to this problem lies, as we shall see presently, in driving up the supply of crude manpower at the bottom of the ladder. Nonetheless the basic paint remains, the case for more leisure is not stronger on purely prima facie grounds than the case for making labour-time itself more agreeable. The test, it is worth repeating, is not the effect on productivity -- It is not seriously argued that the shorter work week increases productivity --- that men produce more in fewer Hours than they would in more. Rather it is whether fewer Hours are always to be preferred to more but pleasant ones.
2. (a) Write a comment on the major idea of the following poem in about 50 words. 
(b) Also write a short note on the language the poet has used in the poem. 
If we could get the hand of it entirely
It would take too long;
All we know is the splash of words in passing
And falling twigs of songs,
And when we try to eavesdrop on the great
Presences ti is rarely
That by a stroke of luck we are appropriate
Even a phrase entirely
If we could find our happiness entirely
In somebody else's arms
We should not fear the spears of the spring nor the city's
Yammering fire alarms
But, as it is, the spears each year go through
Our flesh and almost hourly
Bell or siren banishes the blue
Eyes of love entirely
And if the world were black or white entirely
And all the charts were plain
Instead of a mad weir of tigerish waters,
A prism of delight and pain,
We might be surer when we wished to go
Or again we might be merely
Bored but in brute reality there is no
Road that is right entirely.
3. (a) Use FIVE of the following pair of words in your own sentences so as to bring out the difference in their meaning. 
(i) Par, At a par
(ii) Compliment, Complement
(iii) Complacent, Complaisant
(iv) State, Government
(v) Eminent, Prominent
(vi) Below, Beneath
(vii) Portly, Comely
(viii) Set up, Set upon
(ix) Shall, Will
(x) Sink, Drown
(b) Use the following words, expressions and idioms in your own sentences so as to bring out their meaning. 
(i) Trudge along
(ii) Point-blank
(iii) In the doldrums
(iv) Dole out
(v) At cross purposes
(vi) Cheek by jowl
(vii) Succinctly
(viii) Hilarious
(ix) Detract from
(x) Plain-sailing
4. Bring out in about 200 words in the achievements of a great scientist or writer of the twentieth century. 
Write a letter to the editor of a newspaper commenting on the achievements of a political hero of the modern times. 
5. Briefly discuss the role that Pakistan is playing vis-a-vis the Third World today. 
Write about 200-300 words on the value of sports and games in an educational system, with particular reference to Pakistan. 
7. YEAR 1977
1. Write a precis of the following passage.
     Those who regard the decay of civilization as something quite normal and natural console themselves with the thought that it is not civilization, but a civilization, which is falling a prey to dissolution, that there will be a new age and a new race in which there will blossom a new civilization. But that is a mistake. The earth no longer has in reverse, as it had once, gifted people as yet unused, who can relieve us and take our place in some distant future as the leader of our spiritual life. We already know all those that the earth has to dispose of. There is not one among them which is not already taking such a part in our civilization that its spiritual fate is determined by our own. All of them, the gifted and the un-gifted, the distant and the near, have felt the influence of those forces of barbarism which are yet working among us. All of them are, like ourselves, diseased, and only as we recover can they recover.
     It is not the civilization of a race, but that of mankind, present and future alike, that we must give up as lost, if belief in the rebirth of our civilization is a vain thing. But it need not to be so given up. If the ethical is the essential element in civilization, decadence changes into renaissance as soon as ethical activities are set to work again in our convictions and in the ideas which we undertake to stamp upon reality. The attempt to bring this about is well worth making, and it should be world-wide. It is true that the difficulties that have to be reckoned with in this undertaking are so great that  only the strongest faith in the power of the ethical spirit will let us venture on it.
     Again the renewal of civilization is hindered by the fact that it is so exclusively the individual personality which must be looked to as the agent in the new movement.
     The renewal of civilization has nothing to do with movements which bear the characters of the experiences of the crowd, these are never anything but reactions to external happenings. But civilization can only revive when there shall come into being in a number of individuals a new tone of mind independent of the one prevalent among the crowd and in opposition to it, a tone of mind which will gradually win influence over the collective one, and in the end determine its character. It is only an ethical movement which can rescue us from the slough of barbarism, and the ethical comes into existence on in individuals.
     The final decision as to what the future of a society shall be depends not on how near its organization is to perfection, but on the degrees of worthiness in its individual members. The most important, and yet the least easily determinable, element in history is the series of unobtrusive general changes which take place in the individual dispositions, and that is why it is so difficult to understand thoroughly the men and events of past times. The character and worth of individuals among the mass and the way they work themselves into membership of the whole body, receiving influences from it and giving others back, we can even today only partially and uncertainly understand.
     One thing, however, is clear. Were the collective body works more strongly on the individual than the latter does upon it, the result is deterioration because the noble elements on which everything depends, namely the spiritual and moral worthiness of the individual is thereby necessarily constricted and hampered. Decay of the spiritual and moral life then sets in which renders society incapable of understanding and solving the problems which it has to face. Therefore, sooner or later, it is the duty of individuals to a higher conception of their capabilities and undertake the function which only the individual can perform, that of producing new spiritual-ethical ideas. If this does not come about many times over nothing can save us.
2.(a)  Read the following poem carefully and paraphrase it in modern English prose. 
(b) Write a brief criticism of the poem. 
Mortality, behold and fear,
What a change of flesh is here!
Think how many royal bones
Sleep within these heaps of stones,
Here they lie, had realms and lands,
Who now want strength to stir their hands.
Where from their pulpits scal'd with dust
They preach, 'In greatness is not trust'.
Here's an acre sown indeed
With the richest royalist seed
That the earth did e'er suck in.
Since the first-man died for sin,
Here the bones of birth have cried
'Though gods they were, as men they died!'
Here are sands; ignoble things,
Dropt from the ruin'd sides of Kings:
Here's the world of pomp and state
Buried in dust, once dead by fate.
3. (a) Use any FIVE of the following pair of words in sentences to bring out clearly their difference in meaning.
(i) Altar, Alter
(ii) Apposite, Opposite
(iii) Bear, Bare
(iv) Complacent, Complaisant
(v) Confident, Confidant
(vi) Disease, Decease
(vii) Gate, Gait
(viii) Judicial, Judicious
(ix) Ingenious, Ingenuous
(x) Yoke, Yolk
(b) Use any FIVE of the following expressions in your own sentences to illustrate their meaning,
(i) To bear the brunt of
(ii) To call a spade a spade
(iii) To fight shy of
(iv) To cry over the spilt milk
(v) To burn the candle at both ends
(vi) To rob peter to pay paul
(vii) To take the bull by the horns
(viii) Playing to the gallery
(ix) Holding out the olive branch
(x) To make out
4. Write a letter to your local newspaper, explaining of some local nuisance and making some positive recommendations.  
Write a description of about 200 words of a rural or urban scene with which you are familiar. 
5. Briefly discuss "The Role of the University in Economic Development". 
Discuss in about 250 words ONE of the following topics:
(a) How Free is Press?
(b) The Lure of Fashion
8. YEAR 1978
1. Make a precis of the following passage and suggest a suitable title.
     "I was a firm believer is democracy, whereas he (D.H. Lawrence) had developed the whole philosophy of Fascism before the politicians had thought of it. 'I don't believe", he wrote, "in democratic control. I think the working man is fit to elect governors or overseers for his immediate circumstances, but for no more. You must utterly revise the electorate. The working man shall elect superiors for the things that concern him immediately, no more. From the other classes, as they rise, shall be elected the higher governors. The thing must culminate in one real head, as every organic thing must -- no foolish republics with no foolish presidents, but an elected king, something like Julius Caesar." He, of course, in his imagination, supposed that when a dictatorship was established he would be the Julius Caesar. This was the part of the dream-like quality of all his thinking. He never let himself bump into reality. He would go into long tirades about how one must proclaim "the truth" to the multitude, and he seemed to have no doubt that multitude would listen. Would he put his political philosophy into a book? No in our corrupt society the written word is always a lie. Would he go in Hyde Park and proclaim "the truth" from a soap box? No: that would be far too dangerous (odd streaks of prudence emerged in him from time to time). Well, I said, what would you do? At this point he would change the subject.
     Gradually I discovered that he had no real wish to make the world better, but only to indulge in eloquent Soliloquy about how bad it was. If anybody heard the soliloquies so much the better, but they were designed at most to produce a little faithful band of disciplines who could sit in the deserts of New Mexico and feel holy. All this was conveyed to me in the language of a Fascist dictator as what I must preach, the "must" having thirteen under-linings
(Lord Russell)
2. "I will arise and go now, and go to Innisfree,
And a small cabin built there, of clay and wattles made;
Nine beam rows will I have there, a hive of the honey bee,
And live alone in bee loud glade.
And I shall have some peace there, for peace comes dropping slow.
Dropping from the veils of the morning to where the crickets sing;
There midnight's all a glimmer, and noon a purple glow,
And evening full of the linnet's wings.
I will arise and go now, for always night and day
I hear lake water lapping with low sounds by the shore;
While I stand on the roadway, or on the pavements gray.
I hear it in the deep heart's core."
(i) Using about 50 words, bring out the reason why the poet wants to go Innisfree and what he intends to do there. 
(ii) Critically comment on the main idea and language of the poem. 
3. (a) Use FIVE of the following pair of words in your own sentences so as to bring out their meaning:
(i) Affection, Affectation
(ii) Urban, Urbane
(iii) Official, Officious
(iv) Beside, Besides
(v) Casual, Causal
(vi) Pour, Pore
(vii) Humiliation, Humility
(viii) Wreck, Wreak
(ix) Bare, Bear
(x) Temporal, Temporary
(b) Use the following expressions and idioms in your own sentences so as to bring out their meaning:
(i) The acid test
(ii) A bad hat
(iii) In a blue funk
(iv) Set one's cap
(v) Down at heel
(vi) To die in harness
(vii) Dead as doornail
(viii) To raise coin
(ix) To strike one's colours
(x) To carry the day
4. Write a short story of about 200 words illustrating the moral,
"A fool may learn a wise man wit."
Write a letter to a foreign friend giving him a few reasons why Muslims demanded Pakistan. 
5. Discuss the statement that the vacuum of values which we are experiencing today has come about because those who should have surrendered without a struggle. 
Write a note on the deteriorating standards of education in our country. Suggest some remedies. 
9. YEAR 1979
1. Write a precis of the following passage and assign a suitable heading to it.
     Probably the only protection for contemporary man is to discover how to use his intelligence in the service of love and kindness. The training of human intelligence must include the simultaneous development of the emphatic capacity. Only in this way can intelligence be made an instrument of social morality and responsibility -- and thereby increase the chances of survival.
     The need to produce human beings with trained morally sensitive intelligence is essentially a challenge to educators and educational institutions. Traditionally, the realm of social morality was left to religion and the churches as guardians or custodians. But their failure to fulfill this responsibility and their yielding to the seductive lures of the men of wealth and pomp and power and documented by the history of the last two thousand years and have now resulted in the irrelevant "God is Dead"theological rhetoric. The more pragmatic men of power have had no time or inclination to deal with the fundamental problems of social morality. For them simplistic Machiavellianism must remain the guiding principle of their decisions -- power is morality, morality is power. This over simplification increases the chances of nuclear devastation. We must therefore, hope that educators and educational institutions have the capacity, the commitment and the time to instill moral sensitivity as an integral part of the complex pattern of functional human intelligence. Some way must be found in the training of human beings to give them the assurance to love, the security to be kind, and the integrity required for a functional empathy.
2. Paraphrase the following poem and critically examine its theme. 
The quality of mercy is not strained:
It droppeth as the gentle rain from the Heaven
Upon the place beneath; it is twice blest;
It blesseth him that gives and him that takes;
'Tis mightiest in the mightiest; it becomes
The throned monarch better than his crown;
His sceptre shows the force of temporal power,
The attribute to awe and majesty,
Wherein doth sit the dread and fear of Kings;
But mercy is above the sceptred sway;
It is enthroned in the hearts of kings,
It is an attribute to God Himself;
And earthly power doth then show likest God's
When mercy seasons justice.
3. (a) Use any FIVE of the following pair of words in your own sentences so as to bring out their meanings. 
(i) Cession, Session
(ii) Canon, Cannon
(iii) Barbarism, Barbarity
(iv) Artist, Artisan
(v) Antic, Antique
(vi) Illusion, Allusion
(vii) Aspire, Expire
(viii) Collision, Collusion
(ix) Counsel, Council
(x) Expedient, Expeditious
(b) Use any FIVE of the following expressions and idioms in your own sentences so as to bring out their meanings. 
(i) Take down at peg
(ii) To monkey with
(iii) In hot water
(iv) Petticoat Government
(v) To pull oneself together
(vi) To rise from the ranks
(vii) To rub shoulders
4. Would your rather have the kind of society where students were so indifferent that they lacked interest in politics or the society in which they show independence to differ with the administration?
Life is a tragedy to those who feel and comedy to those who think. Comment. 
5. In reviving stale philosophies of the East and romanticizing it's past, the West is helping to perpetuate Eastern backwardness. Comment on this statement. 
"I am his Majesty's dog at Kew;
Pray tell me; whose dog are you?"
(Alexander Pope)
Comment on the psychological implications of this query. 

10. YEAR 1980
1. Summarize the following passage, tracing the main arguments and reducing it about one-third of its present length.
     The attention we give to terrorism often seems disproportionate to its real importance. Terrorism incidents make superb copy for journalists, but kill and maim fewer people than road accidents. Nor is terrorism politically effective. Empires rise and fall according to the real determinants of politics -- namely overwhelming force or strong popular support -- not according to a bit of mayhem caused by isolated fanatics whom one would take seriously enough to vote for it. Indeed, the very variety of incidents that might be described as "terrorism" has been such as to lead critics to suggest that no single subject for investigation exists at all. Might we not regard terrorism as a kind of minor blotch on the skin of an industrial civilization whose very heart is filled with violent dreams and aspirations. Who would call in the dermatologist when the heart itself is sick.
     But popular opinion takes terrorism very seriously indeed and popular opinion is probably right. For the significance of terrorism lies not only in the grotesque nastiness of terroristic outrages but also in the moral claims they imply. Terrorism is the most dramatic exemplification of the moral fault of blind willfulness. Terrorism is a solipsistic denial of the obligation of self-control we all must recognize when we live in civilized communities.
     Certainly the sovereign high road to misunderstanding terrorism is the pseudo-scientific project of attempting do discover its causes. Terrorists themselves talk of the frustrations which have supposedly necessitated their actions but to transform these facile justifications into scientific hypotheses is to succumb to the terrorists own fantasies. To kill and main people is a choice people make, and glib invocations of necessity are baseless. Other people living in the same situation see no such necessity at all. Hence there are no "causes" of terrorism; only decision to terrorize. It is a moral phenomenon and only a moral discussion can be adequate to it.
2. "Had he and I but met
By some old ancient inn,
We should have sat us down to wet
Right many a napperkin!

"But ranged as infantry,
And staring face to face,
I shot him as he at me
And killed him as his place.
"I shot him dead because --
Because he was my foe,
Just so: my foe of course he was;
That's clear enough; although.

"He thought he'd list, perhaps
Off-hand like just as I --
Was out of work had sold his traps
No other reason why

"Yes, quaint and curious was is!
You shoot a fellow down
You'd treat if met where any bar is,
Or help to half-a-crown.
(i) What thought troubles the speaker? What is his reflected opinion about his deed in wartime? Why did he feel differently during the war?
(ii) Do you think that the poem expresses an idea common to soldiers in all wars? What is that idea?
3. (a) Write brief definitions of the following ten words. 
(i) Munificent
(ii) Rapacious
(iii) Jeopardize
(iv) Fatuous
(v) Edify
(vi) Esoteric
(vii) Impasse
(viii) Incongruous
(ix) Docile
(x) Repercussions
(b) Bring out the meaning of any FIVE of the following in appropriate sentences. 
(i) Pocket the affront
(ii) Thin end of the wedge
(iii) Flash in the pan
(iv) To keep at a respectful distance
(v) At one's beck and call
(vi) Go against the grain
(vii) Bring grist to the mill
(viii) Upset the apple cart
(ix) Hoist on one's own petard
(x) Live on the fat of the land
4. (a) Below are FIVE sentences each containing a common grammatical error. Make the necessary corrections. 
(i) There was a very different atmosphere in the town this morning than there was yesterday.
(ii) Every one must decide for themselves what to do about it.
(iii) I should't be surprised if he doesn't turn up tomorrow.
(iv) Neither Farooq or Akbar are going to the wedding lunch on Saturday.
(v) I compared his essay to Mushtaq's and found them to be almost identical.
(b) Correct the spelling of the following TEN words. 
(i) Occurrance
(ii) Ecstacy
(iii) Drunkeness
(iv) Irrisistible
(v) Supercede
(vi) Embarrasing
(vii) Disoppoint
(viii) accasional
(ix) Indespensible
(x) Persevarance
5. Write a brief essay on ONE of the following. 
(a) "A great part of the mischief of the world arise from words"
(b) Democracy and Human Dignity
(c) The Third World
(d) Freedom of Speech
(e) "The most important thing is not to find, but to add to ourselves what we find."
Write a short speech for a symposium on the Dilemma of Yourth. 
11. YEAR 1981
1. Write a precis of the following passage and suggest a suitable title.
     An important part of management is the making of rules. As a means of regulating the functioning of an organization so that most routine matters are resolved without referring each issue to the manager they are an essential contribution to efficiency. The mere presence of carefully considered rules has the double-edged advantage of enabling workers to know how far they can go, what is expected of them and what channels of action to adopt on the one side, and on the other, of preventing the management from behaving in a capricious manner. The body of rules fixed by the company for itself acts as its constitution, which is binding both on employees and employers, however, it must be remembered that rules are made for people, not people for rules. If conditions and needs change rules ought to change with them. Nothing is sadder than the mindless application of rules which are outdated and irrelevant. An organization suffers from mediocrity if it is too rule-bound. People working in will do the minimum possible. It is called "working to rule" or just doing enough to ensure that rules are not broken. But this really represents the lowest level of the employer/employee relationship and an organization afflicted by this is in an unhappy condition indeed. Another important point in rule-making is to ensure that they are rules which can be followed. Some rules are so absurd that although everyone pays lip-service to them, no one really bothers to follow them. Often the management knows this but can do thing about it. The danger of this is, if a level of disrespect for one rule is created this might lead to an attitude of disrespect for all rules. One should take it for granted that nobody likes rules, nobody wants to be restricted by them. Rules which cannot be followed are not only pointless, they are actually damaging the structure of the organization.
2. Critically examine the following passage. 
     Some societies have experimented with eliminating the middleman. Prices can certainly be controlled better if the government acts as the middleman, because, after all, goods have to be lifted and transported to the other parts of the country. But governments are not usually very efficient or quick in these matters. Nor are they economical -- a lot of file-and-paperwork involving a lot of people adds up to a lot of indirect expense. Although in theory it ought to be possible to reduce prices by eliminating the middleman, in practice is seems to be an essential evil.
     Business can be left to find its own level in accordance with the so-called 'laws' of supply and demand. By and large, Pakistan is what is called a 'sellers' market because essential goods are usually in short supply or are inclined to fall below the needs of an overgrowing population. Market manipulation in such a situation is easy and unfortunately fairly common. Goods usually disappear at about the time they are needed most, leading to price spirals and malpractices. Price control under such circumstances becomes a little unrealistic unless a huge department can be set up with vigilance terms and inspectors empowered to raid shops and warehouses. The efforts to control a seller's market is so great and the costs so high that in fact not a great deal of control can be exercised. And alternative method is to encourage the growth of buyer's market in which the customer has a choice between many competing products. Competition automatically forces good quality and low prices on the goods. This is at present only possible in the high production areas of the world. But competition leads to malpractices of a different kind. Survival for a business often depends upon the destruction of competing business and big companies have a natural advantage over small ones. An obsessive drive to 'sell' is generated in such a system. Huge sums are spent on advertising, the costs of which are transferred to the buyer. People are tricked and badgered into buying things they do not really need.
3. (a) Use any FIVE of the following pair of words in your own sentences as to bring out their meanings.
(i) Canvas, Canvass
(ii) Cast, Caste
(iii) Appraise, Apprise
(iv) Allusion, Illusion
(v) Continual, Continuous
(vi) Berth, Birth
(vii) Apposite, Opposite
(viii) Artist, Artiste
(b) Use any FIVE of the following expression in sentences so as to bring out their meanings.
(i) To have your cake and eat it too
(ii) Between the devil and the deep blue sea
(iii) To be in hot water
(iv) To be on the carpet
(v) It never rains but it pours
(vi) A miss is as good as a mile
(vii) To give oneself airs
(viii) To have the courage of one's convictions
(ix) The onlooker sees most of the game
(x) Out of sight out of mind
4. Write a paragraph on any one of the following topics.
(a) The authoritarian society
(b) Civilized dissent is necessary for social progress
(c) Life is a tragedy for those who feel and a comedy for those who think
(d) Eventually all human action must be judged by its moral content
(e) Those who can, do, those who can't teach
5. Write a paragraph on ONE of the following topics.
(a) What we call progress is largely delusory
(b) Speak no evil, hear no evil, see no evil
(c) Render unto Caesar that which is Caesar's and unto God that which is God's
(d) A man's personality, morality, intellect and attitudes are all the product of his bodily chemistry.
(e) All the world's a stage

12. YEAR 1982
1. Write a precis of the following passage in about 100 words and suggest a title.
     Objectives pursued by, organisations should be directed to the satisfaction of demands resulting from the wants of mankind. Therefore, the determination of appropriate objectives for organised activity must be preceded by an effort to determine precisely what their wants are. Industrial organisations conduct market studies to learn what consumers goods should be produced. City Commissions make surveys to ascertain what civic projects would be of most benefit. Highway Commissions conduct traffic counts to learn what constructive programmes should be undertaken. Organisations come into being as a means for creating and exchanging utility. Their success is dependent upon the appropriateness of the series of acts contributed to the system. The majority of these acts is purposeful, that is, they are directed to the accomplishment of some objective. These acts are physical in nature and find purposeful employment in the alteration of the physical environment. As a result utility is created, which through the process of distribution, makes it possible for the cooperative system to endure. Before the Industrial Revolution most cooperative activity was accomplished in small owner-managed enterprises. usually with a single decision maker and simple organisational objectives. Increased technology and the growth of industrial organisations made necessary the establishment of a hierarchy of objectives. This, in turn, required a division of the management, function until today a hierarchy of decision maker exists in most organisations. The effective pursuit of appropriate objectives contributes directly the organisational efficiency. As used here, efficiency is a measure of the want satisfying power of the cooperative system as a whole. Thus efficiency is the summation of utilities received from the organisation divided by the utilities given to the organisation, as subjectively evaluated by each contributor. The function of the management process is the delineation of organisational objectives and the coordination of activity towards the accomplishment of these objectives. The system of coordinated activities must be maintained so that each contributor, including the manager, gains more than he contributes.
2. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow. 
     After a situation has been carefully analysed and the possible outcomes have been evaluated as accurately as possible, a decision can be made. This decision may include the alternative of not making a decision on the alternatives presented. After all the data that can be brought to bear on a situation has been considered, some areas of uncertainty my be expected to remain. If a decision is to be made, these areas of uncertainty must be bridged by the consideration and evaluation of intangibles. Some call the type of evaluation involved in the consideration of intangibles, intuition, others call it hunch on judgement, whatever it be called, it is inescapable that this type of thinking must always be the final part in arriving at a decision about the future. There is no other way if action is to be taken. There appears to be a marked difference in people's abilities to come to sound conclusions, when some facts relative to a situation are missing, those who possess sound judgement, are richly rewarded. But as effective as an intuition, hunch on judgment may some times be, this type of thinking should be reserved for those areas where facts on which to base a decision, are missing.
(a) How is it possible to come to a sound decision when facts are missing?
(b) What part in your opinion does decision making play in the efficient functioning of an organisation?
Bring out the implication of the following observation. 
Traveler, there is no path: paths are made by walking
3. Make sentences to illustrate the meaning of any FIVE of the following.
(i) To come to a dead end
(ii) To turn a deafer
(iii) Every dark cloud has a silver lining
(iv) Blowing hot and cold together
(v) To let the cat out of the bag
(vi) To put the cart before the horse
(vii) To sail in the same boat
(viii) A Swan Song
4. Use any FIVE of the following pair of words in your own sentences to bring out their meanings. 
(i) Mitigate, Alleviate
(ii) Persecute, Prosecute
(iii) Popular, Populace
(iv) Compliment, Complement
(v) Excite, Incite
(vi) Voracity, Veracity
(vii) Virtual, Virtuous
(viii) Exceptional, Exceptionable
5. Write a paragraph of at least 100 words on any ONE of the following topics.
(a) All that glitters is not gold
(b) Eternal vigilance is the price of liberty
(c) Problems of developing countries
(d) There is no short cut to success
(e) To err is human, to forgive is divine
13. YEAR 1983
1. Write a precis of the following passage and suggest a suitable title.
     Rural development lies at the heart of any meaningful development strategy. This is the only mechanism to carry the message to the majority of the people and to obtain their involvement in measures designed to improve productivity levels. Rural population exceeds 70 percent of the total population of the country, despite a rapid rate of urbanization. Average rural income is 34 percent less than per capita urban income. A large part of under employment is still concealed in various rural activities particularly in the less developed parts of the country. For centuries, the true magnitude of poverty has been concealed from view by pushing a large part of it to the rural areas. This set in motion a self-perpetuating mechanism. The more enterprising and talented in the rural society migrated to the cities in search of dreams which were seldom realized. Such migrants added to urban squalor. The relatively more prosperous in the rural society opted for urban residence for different reasons. The rural society itself has in this way systematically been denuded of its more enterprising elements, as rural areas developed the character of a huge and sprawling slum. Development in the past has touched rural scene mainly via agricultural development programmes. These are essential and would have to be intensified. Much more important is a large scale expansion of physical and social infrastructure on the village scene. These included rural roads, rural water supply and village electrification as a part of the change in the physical environment and primary education and primary health care as the agents of social change. The task is to provide modern amenities as an aid for bringing into motion the internal dynamics of the rural society on a path leading to increase in productivity and self-help, changing the overall surrounding, while preserving coherence, integrated structure and the rich cultural heritage of the rural society.
2. Read the following passage carefully and answer any TWO of the questions that follow in your own words. 
     "The third great defect of our civilization is that it does not know what to do with its knowledge. Science has given us powers fit for the gods, yet we use them like small children. For example, we do not know how to manage our machines. Machines were made to be man's servants, yet he has grown so dependent on them that they arc in a fair way to become his masters. Already most men spend most of their lives looking after and waiting upon machines. And the machines are very stern masters. They must be fed with coal, and given petrol to drink, and oil to wash with and they must be kept at the right temperature. And if they do not get their meals when they expect them, they grow sulky and refuse to work, or burst with rage, and blow up and spread ruin and destruction all round them. So we have to wait upon them very attentively and do all that we can to keep them in a good temper. Already we find it difficult either to work or play without the machines, and a time may come when they will rule us altogether, just as we rule the animals. And this brings me to the point at which I asked "What do we do with all time which the machines have saved for us, and the new energy they have given us?" On the whole, it must be admitted, we do very little. For the most part we use our time and energy to make more and better machines, but more and better machines will only give us still more time and still more energy and what are we to do with them? The answer, I think, is that we should try to become more civilized. For the machines themselves, and the power which the machines have given us, are not civilization but aids to civilization. But you will remember that we agreed at the beginning the being civilized meant making and liking beautiful things, thinking freely, and living rightly and maintaining justice equally between man and man. Man has a better chance today to do these things than he ever had before, he has more time, more energy, less to fear and less to fight against. If he will give his time and energy which his machines have won for him to make making more beautiful things, to finding out more and more about the universe to removing the causes of quarrels between nations, do discovering how to prevent poverty, then I think out civilization would undoubtedly be the greatest, as it would be the most lasting that there has ever been."
(a) What is your concept of "Civilization"? Do you agree with the author's views on the subject?
(b) Science has given us powers fit for the gods. Is it a curse or blessing?
(c) The use of machines has brought us more leisure and energy. Are we utilizing it to improve the quality of human life?
(d) Instead of making machines our servants, the author says, they have become our masters. In what sense has this come about?
3. Expand the idea contained in one of the following. 
(i) Give every man thy ear but few they voice
(ii) If winter comes, can spring be far behind
(iii) To err is human, to refrain from laughing, humane
(iv) Houses are built to live in and not to look on.
(v) Full many a flower is born to blush unseen. And waster its sweetness on the desert air.
(vi) What is this life, if full of care / We have no time to stand and stare
(vii) A Yawn is a Silent Shout.
4. Use any FIVE of the following pair of words in your own sentences so as to bring out their meanings. 
(i) Allusion, Illusion
(ii) Ardour, Order
(iii) Conquer, Concur
(iv) Cite, Site
(v) Addict, Edict
(vi) Proceed, Precede
(vii) Right, Rite
(viii) Weather, Whether
5. Fill in the blanks. 
(i) Much __________ about nothing.
(ii) __________ is the last refuge of the Scoundrel.
(iii) To put the __________ before the __________.
(iv) __________ of the same __________ flock together.
(v) A __________ in time saves __________.
(vi) __________ dogs seldom __________.
(vii) Sweets are the uses of __________.
(viii) Eternal __________ is the price of __________.
(ix) A __________ child __________ the fire.
(x) One man's __________ is another man's __________.
6. Check and write the word or phrase you believe is nearest to the meaning of any TEN of the following words.
(i) Moratorium: (large tomb, waiting period, security for debt, funeral house)
(ii) Prolific: (skillful, fruitful, wordy, spread out)
(iii) Bi-Partisan: (narrow minded, progressive, representing two parties, divided)
(iv) Unequivocal: (careless, unmistakable, variable, incomparable)
(v) Covenant: (prayer, debate, garden, agreement)
(vi) Tentative: (expedient, nominal, provisional, sensitive)
(vii) Demographic: (relating the study of: government, demons, communications, population)
(viii) Sonar Apparatus to (detect something in the air, locate objects under water, measure rain, anticipate earthquake)
(ix) Progeny: (a genius, offspring, ancestors, growth)
(x) Empirical: (relay on theory, based on experience, having vision of power, disdainful)
(xi) Polarize: (chill, to separate into opposing extremes, slant, cause to be freely movable)
(xii) Apolitical: (conservative, rude, non-political, radical)
(xiii) Plenary: (timely, combined, florid, full)
(xiv) Entourage: (decorators, tourist, attendant, adversaries)
(xv) Diagnosis: (identification of an illness, prophecy, plan, likeness)
(xvi) Nucleus: (core, outer part, inedible nut, quality)
14. YEAR 1984
1. Write a precis of the following passage and suggest a suitable title.
     It is no doubt true that we cannot go through life without sorrow. There can be no sunshine without shade. We must not complain that roses have thorns, but rather be grateful that thorns bear flowers. Our existence here is so complex that we must expect much sorrow and much suffering. Many people distress and torment themselves about the mystery of existence. But although a good man may at times be angry with the world, it is certain that no man was ever discontented with the world who did his duty in it. The world is a looking-glass, if you smile, it smiles, if you frown, it frowns back. If you look at it through a red glass, all seems red and rosy: if through a blue, all blue, if through a smoked one, all dull and dingy. Always try then to look at the bright side of things, almost everything in the world has a bright side. There are some persons whose smile, the sound of whose voice, whose every presence seems like a ray of sunshine and brightens a whole room. Greet everybody with a bright smile, kind words and a pleasant welcome. It is not enough to love those who are near and dear to us. We must show that we do so. While, however, we should be grateful, and enjoy to the full the innumerable blessings of life, we cannot expect to have no sorrows or anxieties. Life has been described as a comedy to those who think, a tragedy to those who feel. It is indeed a tragedy at times and a comedy very often, but as a rule, it is what we choose to make it. No evil, said Socrates, can happen to a good man, either in Life or Death.
2. Read the following passage carefully and answer any TWO questions given at the end.
     During the last few decades medicine has undoubtedly advanced by huge strides in consequence of innumerable discoveries and inventions. But have we actually become healthier as a result of this progress? Admittedly, tuberculosis or cholera is today a much rare cause of death in many countries. On the other hand, various other no less dangerous diseases have appeared, which we term "time diseases". They include not only certain impairments of the heart and the circulatory system, of the skeletal structure and internal organs, but also an increased psychic instability, the addiction to all manner of drugs etc., and states of nervous shock and exhaustion.
     According to Bodamer, "Man's hysterical and  vain attempt to overtax and do violence to his nature in order to adjust it to the technical world leads to a dangerous threat to health." In other words, our organs can no longer cope with the noise, the bustle and all the inevitable concomitants of our modern civilization. A man's body is simply not a machine to be used as he thinks fit, and as long as he likes. It is something living, a part of the image of God in which we were created. That is why the body has a rhythm of its own, a rhythm that can make itself heard. The most deep-seated of all the diseases of our time is that man no longer takes God into account, that he has lost confidence in God's dominion over the world, that he considers the visible as the ultimate, the only, reality. But man without God suffers from his fate because he cannot accept it from the hand of God. He suffers from the world because he senses its disordered state without being able to put it right. He begins to suffer from his work because it exhausts him without satisfying him. He begins to suffer from his fellowmen because they are not his neighbours, to whom God would have him turn, but because he lets them get on his neighbours, to whom God would have him turn, but because he lets them get on his nerves and make him ill. And he suffers from himself because he finds himself out of tune and dissatisfied with himself. It is only because our time is no longer centered in God that its structure is increasingly becoming what critics of our civilization call "pathological" dominated by the fear of life as well as by the lust for life, ending in the splitting of personality.
(a) How does the expression "time diseases" indicate that these various ailments have something fundamental in common? Explain.
(b) Why does modern man suffer from his time? It is not because he has not adapted his body sufficiently to the demands of the machine. It is not rather because he has surrendered his sould to time and its powers.
(c) What cure would you suggest to combat these ills?
(d) Explain the last sentence fully.
3. Make sentences to illustrate the meaning of any FIVE of the following. 
(i) To look a gift horse in the mouth
(ii) To have an axe to grind
(iii) To wash one's dirty linen in public
(iv) To pocket and insult
(v) To take to one's heels
(vi) To win laurels
(vii) A gentleman at large
4. Examine the following word groups. Explain and use any FIVE of them in sentences to determine where genuine differences of meaning and function exist within the group. 
(i) Table, Brand
(ii) Opinion, Judgement
(iii) Uninterested, Disinterested
(iv) Revolt, Mutiny
(v) Decay, Spoil
(vi) Adjourn, Postpone
(vii) Ignore, Neglect
(viii) Conspiracy, Plot
5. Discuss each of the following situations and determine the validity of the direct testimony involved. 
(i) A witness testifies to seeing a holdup and identifies one of the gunmen. It is established that this witness was about two hundred yards from the scene of the crime. Under cross-examination, the attorney for the defence brings out the fact that the witness habitually wears glasses to correct a severe condition of nearsightedness, but that on the day of holdup, his glasses were broken and he had just left them to be repaired.
(b) A series of witness agrees that a particular crime was committed by a man who is bald, walks with a slight lip, is about 5.10 tall, and wears thick glasses. They differ on the matter of the colour of his clothing, the type of shoes he was wearing, and the size of satchel he was carrying.
Explain as clearly as you can any TWO of the following statements.
(a) The political structure of a society is always the power structure of that society.
(b) It is better to be silent and be thought stupid than to speak and prove it's true.
(c) The only knowledge worth having is that which is applicable to some part of the economic life of the community.
(d) Any "labour-saving" device is the most in-human aspect of work.
15. YEAR 1985
1. Make a precis of the following passage and suggest a suitable title.
     Climate influences labour not only by enervating the labourer or by invigorating him, but also by the effect it produces on the regularity of his habits. Thus we find that no people living in a very northern latitude have ever possessed that steady and unflinching industry for which the inhabitants of temperate regions are remarkable. In the more northern countries the severity of the weather, and, at some seasons, the deficiency of light, render it impossible for the people to continue their usual out-of-door employments. The result is that the working classes, being compelled to cease from their ordinary pursuits are rendered move prone to desultory habits, the chain of their industry is, as it were, broken, and they lose that impetus which long-continued and uninterrupted practice never fails to give. Hence there arises a national character more fitful and capricious than that possessed by a people whose climate permits the regular exercise of their ordinary industry. Indeed so powerful is this principle that we perceive its operations even under the most opposite circumstances. It would be difficult to conceive a greater difference in government, laws, religion, and manners, than that which distinguishes Sweden and Norway, on the one hand, from Spain and Portugal on the other. But these four countries have one great point in common. In all of them continued agricultural industry is impracticable. In the two Southern countries labour is interrupted by the dryness of the weather and by the consequent state of the soil. In the northern countries the same effect is produced by the severity of the winter and the shortness of the days. The consequence is that these four nations, though so different in other respects, are all remarkable for a certain instability and fickleness of character.
2. Read the following passage carefully and answer any TWO questions given at the end.
     Whoever starts a new diary does it, if he is wise, in secret, for if it be known to his friends that he keeps a punctual record of his doings and theirs, they will treat him with a reticence that may embarrass him. That is the first rule of diary keeping, but others, such as whether the diary should be regular, or irregular, are more disputable. It is, however, a fatal practice to attempt regularity in amount ..., to aim, as some do, at filling a page or two a day. It is equally futile to strive for uniformity of style or, indeed for any style at all. The advantage of the diary form is that it exempts its users from all ordinary rules, you may spell as you like, abbreviate, or wander into side-tracks as and when it pleases you. Above all, you need to preserve no sense of proportion or responsibility. A new hat may oust a new Parliament, a new actress who amused you may, without any complaints, sweep all the armies and potentates of Europe over your margin into nothingness and oblivion. Nobody's feelings have to be considered, no sense of critical audience need force gaiety from a mood of sadness or cast a shadow on the spirits of Puck. Why, then does not everyone keep a diary if it is so full of delights of freedom and omnipotence? Perhaps it is because we like to have an audience for what we say, and grow a little tired of entertaining our great grand children. Some aver that all diarists are vain; but it would appear, on the contrary, if they keep their secret and let none pry into their locked drawer, that they have an irrefutable claim to modesty. It is possible, of course, that they may be puffing themselves up before the mirror of posterity, but that is such a remote and pardonable conceit -- particularly, if we remember that posterity is far more likely to mock than to admire that nobody who turns over the blank pages of this year and wonders what other fingers will turn them some day need to be ashamed of his diarist's dream.
(a) What are your impressions about diary-keeping? Write a short paragraph of about 100 words.
(b) State in your own words why the writer thinks that a diary should be kept in secret.
(c) Explain the underlined portions.
3. Use any FIVE of the following pair of words in your own sentences so as to bring out the difference in meaning clearly. 
(i) Eminent, Imminent
(ii) Deference, Difference
(iii) Eligible, Illegible
(iv) Judicial, Judicious
(v) President, Precedent
(vi) Superficial, Superflous
(vii) Immigrant, Emigrant
(viii) Rightful, Righteous
(ix) Contemptible, Contemptuous
(x) Ingenious, Ingenuous
4. Make sentences to illustrate the meaning of any FIVE of the following. 
(i) By and by
(ii) The lion's share
(iii) In black and white
(iv) To bring to book
(v) To read between the lines
(vi) To stick to one's guns
(vii) To be under a cloud
(viii) By fits and starts
5. Use any FIVE of the following phrases in your own sentences so as to make their meaning clear.
(i) Ab initio
(ii) Boa fides
(iii) En bloc
(iv) Ex paste
(v) Sine die
(vi) Status quo
(vii) Ad valorum
(viii) Alter ego
6. Expand the idea contained in any ONE of the following in a passage of about 150 words.
(a) Men are not hanged for stealing horses but that horses may not be stolen
(b) Three may keep a secret if two are dead.
(c) All philosophy is in two words, sustain or abstain.
16. YEAR 1986
1. Write a precis of the following passage, suggesting a suitable title.
     One of the fundamental facts about words is that the most useful ones in our language have many meanings. That is partly whey they are so useful: they work overtime. Think of all the various things we mean by the word "foot" on different occasion: one of the lower extremities of the human body, a measure of verse, the ground about a tree, twelve inches, the floor in front of the stairs. The same is true of nearly every common noun or verb ... considering the number of ways of taking a particular word, the task of speaking clearly and being understood would seem pretty hopeless if it were not for another very important fact about language. Though a word may have many senses, these senses can be controlled, up to a point, by the context in which the word is used. When we find the word in a particular verbal setting - we can usually decide quite definitely which of the many senses of the word relevant. If a poet says his verse has feet, it doesn't occur to you that he could mean it's a yard long or is three legged (unless perhaps you are a critic planning to puncture the poet with a pun about his "lumping verse"). The context rules out these maverick senses quite decisively.
2. Read the following passage carefully and answer any TWO questions given at the end in about 70 words each. 
     Biofeedback is a process that allows people with stress-related illness such as high blood pressure to monitor and improve their health by learning to relax. In biofeedback, devices that monitor skin temperature are attached to a patient's arm, leg, or forehead. Then the person tries to relax. As he or she relaxes completely, the temperature of the area under the devices rises because more blood reaches the area. When a machine that is attached to the devices detects the rise in temperature a buzzer sounds, or the reading on a dial changes. As long as the patient is relaxed, the buzzer or dial gives encouragement.
     The next part of the biofeedback process is learning how to relax without the monitoring devices. The patient recalls how he or she felt when the buzzer or dial indicated relaxation and then tries to imitate that feeling without having to check the biofeedback machine. After succeeding in doing so, the patient tries to maintain the relaxed feeling throughout the day. Stress may cause as much as 75 percent of all illness, therefore, biofeedback promises to bean outstanding medical tool.
(a) What is biofeedback? Describe in you own way.
(b) Can learning to relax improve health? Explain you view point.
(c) Why is biofeedback considered to be an instrument with great potential for the treatment of stress-related illness?
3. Use any FIVE of the following pairs of words in your own sentences to differentiate them in their meanings and functions. 
(i) Complement, Compliment
(ii) Outbreak, Breakout
(iii) Facilitate, Felicitate
(iv) Precede, Proceed
(v) Layout, Outlay
(vi) Cease, Sieze
(vii) Career, Carrier
(viii) Acculturate, Acclimatize
4. Transform any FIVE of the following sentences into Direct/Indirect Form as the case may be. 
(i) He said, "Don't open the door."
(ii) He offered to bring me some tea.
(iii) He said, "Thank you!"
(iv) He said, "Can you swim?" and I said, "No".
(v) He told Aslam to get his coat.
(vi) "If I were you, I would wait", I said.
(vii) He ordered the peon to lock the door.
(viii) He warned me not to leave my car unlocked as there had been lot of stealing from cars.
5. Describe the meaning of any FIVE of the following foreign phrases.
(i) Prima facie
(ii) Ex post facto
(iii) Fait accompli
(iv) Vis-a-vis
(v) Modus operandi
(vi) Aide memoire
(vii) Laissez faire
(viii) Au revoir
6. Explain briefly any THREE in your own words to illustrate the central idea contained therein in about 50 words each. 
(a) Give every man thy ear but few thy voice
(b) To rob Peter to pay Paul
(c) The child is father of the man.
(d) Art lies in concealing art
(e) Life without a philosophy is like a ship without rudder.
17. YEAR 1987
1. Make a precis of the following passage and suggest a suitable title.
     The incomparable gift of brain, with its truly amazing powers of abstraction, has rendered obsolete the slow and sometimes clumsy mechanisms utilized by evolution so far. Thanks to the brain alone, man, in the course of three generations only, has conquered the realm of air, while it took hundreds of thousands of years for animals to achieve the same result through the process of evolution. Thanks to the brain alone, the range of our sensory organs has been increased a million fold, far beyond the wildest dreams, we have brought the moon within thirty miles of us, we see the infinitely small and see the infinitely remote, we hear the inaudible, we have dwarfed distance and killed physical time. We have succeeded in understanding them thoroughly. We have put to shame the tedious and time consuming methods of trial and error used by Nature, because Nature has finally succeeded in producing its masterpieces in the shape of the human brain. But the great laws of evolution are still active, even though adaptation has lost its importance as far as we are concerned. We are now responsible for the progress of evolution. We are free to destroy ourselves if we misunderstand the meaning and the purpose of our victories. And we are free to forge ahead, to prolong evolution, to cooperate with God if we perceive the meaning of it all, if we realize that it can only be achieved through a whole-hearted effort toward moral and spiritual development. Our freedom, of which we may be justly proud, affords us the proof that we represent the spearhead of evolution: but it is up to us to demonstrate, by the way in which we use it, whether we are ready yet to assume the tremendous responsibility which has befallen us almost suddenly.
2. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end. 
     There is a sense in which the aim of education must be the same in all societies. Two hundred years from now there will be no one alive in the world who is alive today. Yet the sum total of human skill and knowledge will probably not be less than it is today. It will almost certainly be greater. And that this is so is due in large part to the educational process by which we pass on to one generation what has been learned and achieved by previous generations. The continuity and growth of society is obviously dependent in this way upon education, both formal and informal. If each generation had to learn for itself what had been learned by its predecessor, no sort of intellectual or social development would be possible and the present state of society would be little different from the society of the old stone age. But this basic aim of education is so general and so fundamental that it is hardly given conscious recognition as an educational purpose. It is rather to be classed as the most important social function of education and is a matter of interest to the sociologist rather than to the educational theorist. Education does this job in any society and the specific way in which it does it will vary from one society to another. When we speak in the ordinary way about the aims of education, we are interested rather in the specific goals set by the nature of society and the purposes of its members. The educational system of any society is a more or less elaborate social mechanism designed to bring about in the persons submitted to it certain skills and attitudes that are judged to be useful and desirable in the society.
(a) How is the continuity and growth of society dependent upon education?
(b) In what way the aims of education are related with a society and its members
(c) What importance does the writer give to the education system of a society.
3. Use any FIVE of the following pairs of words in your own sentences so as to bring the difference in meaning clearly. 
(i) Disclosure, Exposure
(ii) Rigorous, Vigorous
(iii) Custom, Habit
(iv) Peculiar, Particular
(v) Prescribe, Proscribe
(vi) Accident, Incident
(vii) Choice, Preference
(viii) Ascent, Assent
(ix) Emigrant, Immigrant
(x) Continuous, Continual
4. Make sentences to illustrate the meaning of any FIVE of the following. 
(i) To back out
(ii) To keep out of
(iii) Bang into
(iv) To smell a rat
(v) To burn one's fingers
(vi) Null and void
(vii) To catch up with
(viii) To stand up for
(ix) To skim through
(x) To narrow down
5. Complete any FIVE of the following sentences supplying the missing word or phrase in each. 
(i) He wandered __________ he had lost his money.
(ii) He father knew that she __________ disobey him.
(iii) When Ahmed saw me come he __________.
(iv) Don't imagine __________ you can get away.
(v) He puts up__________ almost anything.
(vi) I have applied __________ a new job.
(vii) Her parents strongly object __________ her travelling alone.
(viii) As soon as the plane had refueled __________.
(ix) __________ you take this medicine, you will feel better.
(x) A car with a good engine can go __________.
6. Expand the idea contained in any ONE of the following in about 150 words. 
(a) Learn to walk before you run
(b) Marriage is a lottery
(c) Success has many friends.
18. YEAR 1988
1. Write a precis of the following passage and suggest a suitable title.
     The touring companies had set up their stages, when playing for towns-folk and not for the nobility in the large inn yards where the crowd could sit or stand around the platform and the superior patrons could seat themselves in the galleries outside the bedrooms of the inn. The London theatres more or less reproduced this setting, though they were usually round or oval in shape and stage was more than a mere platform, having entrances at each side, a curtained inner stage and an upper stage or balcony. For imaginative poetic drams this type of stage had many advantages. There was no scenery to be changed, the dramatist could move freely and swiftly from place to place. Having only words at his command, he had to use his imagination and compel his audience to use theirs. The play could move at great speed. Even with such limited evidence as we possess, it is not hard to believe that the Elizabethan audience, attending a poetic tragedy or comedy, found in the theatre an imaginative experience of a richness and intensity that we cannot discover in our drama.
2. Read the following passage and answer any TWO questions given at the end. 
     Another intellectual effect of almost all teaching, except the highest grade of university tuition, is that it encourages docility and the belief that definite answers are known on questions which are legitimate matters of debate. I remember an occasion when a number of us were discussing which was the best of Shakespeare's plays. Most of us were concerned in advancing arguments for unconventional opinions but a clever young man, who, from the elementary schools, had lately risen to the university, informed us, as a fact of which we were unaccountably ignorant, that Hamlet is the best of Shakespeare's plays. After this the subject was closed. Every clergyman in America knows why Rome fell: it was owing to the corruption of morals depicted by Juvenal and Petronius. The fact that morals became exemplary about two centuries before the fall of the Western Empire is unknown or ignored. English children are taught one view of the French Revolution. French children are taught another, neither is true, but in each case it would be highly imprudent to disagree with the teacher, and few feel any inclination to do so. Teachers ought to encourage intelligent disagreement on the part of their pupils, even urging them to read books having opinions opposed to those of the instructor. Bit this is seldom done, with the result the much education consists in the instilling of unfounded dogmas in place of spirit of inquiry. This results, not necessarily from any fault in the teacher, but from the curriculum which demands too much apparent knowledge, with a consequent need of haste and definiteness.
(a) What is the main defect of teaching? Describe in your own words.
(b) What are the causes of the instilling of unfounded dogmas in the mind of students?
(c) Briefly describe the main points presented by the writer of this passage.
3. Write an essay of about 200 words on any ONE of the following. 
(i) Competition in Education
(ii) Science and Religion
(iii) My View of Life
4. Use any FIVE of the following idioms in your sentences.
(i) As cool as cucumber
(ii) Have your cake and eat too
(iii) In a pickle
(iv) Take a cake
(v) Sell like hot cakes
(vi) As flat as a pancake
(vii) Take something with a grain of salt
(viii) Like two peas in a pod
5. Use any FIVE of the following pairs of words in your sentences to differentiate their meaning. 
(i) Custom, Habit
(ii) Deface, Efface
(iii) Differ, Defer
(iv) Conduct, Character
(v) Considerate, Considerable
(vi) Complement, Compliment
(vii) Feet, Feat
(viii) Fair, Fare
(ix) Enviable, Envious
6. Transform any FIVE of the following sentences into Indirect Form. 
(i) The boy said to his teacher, "I do not know the answer."
(ii) The beggar said, May you live long and grow rich."
(iii) "It is very hot today", cried the boys, "we cannot play."
(iv) She said, "What a fine morning it is!"
(v) She said, "I am not telling a lie."
(vi) He said, "I will come to see you tomorrow."
(vii) He said to him, "I really need your help."
(viii) She said, "Can you tell me what the time is?"
19. YEAR 1989
1. Make a precis of the following passage and suggest a suitable title.
     The greatest civilization before ours was the Greek. They, too, lived in a dangerous world. They are a little, highly civilized people, surrounded by barbarous tribes and always threatened by the greatest Asian power, Persia. In the end they succumbed, but the reason they did was not that the enemies outside were so strong, but that their spiritual strength had given way. While they had it, they kept Greece unconquered. Basic to all Greek achievements was freedom. The Athenians were the only free people in the world. In the great empires of antiquity -- Egypt, Babylon, Assyria, Persia -- splendid though they were, with riches and immense power, freedom was unknown. The idea of it was born in Greece, and with it Greece was able to prevail against all the manpower and wealth arrayed against her. At Marathon and at Salamis overwhelming numbers of Persian were defeated by small Greek forces. It was proved there that one free man was superior to many submissively obedient subjects of a tyrant. And Athens, where freedom was the dearest possession, was the leader in those amazing victories. Greece rose to the very height, not because she was big, she was very small, not because she was rich, she was very poor, not even because she was wonderfully gifted. So doubtless were others in the great empires of the ancient world who have gone their way leaving little for us. She rose because there was in the Greeks the greatest spirit that moves in humanity, the spirit that sets men free.
2. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end.
     "Teaching more even than most other professions, has been transformed during the last hundred years from a small, highly skilled profession concerned with a minority of the population, to a large and important branch of the public service. The profession has a great and honourable tradition, extending from the dawn of history until recent times, but any teacher in the modern world who allows himself to be inspired by the ideals of his predecessors is likely to be made sharply aware that ti is not his function to teach what he thinks, but to instill such beliefs and prejudices as are thought useful by his employers. In former days a teacher was expected to be a man of exceptional knowledge or wisdom, to whose words men would do well to attend. In antiquity, teachers were not an organized profession, and no control was exercised over what they taught. It is true that they were often punished afterwards for their subversive doctrines. Socrates was put to death and Plato is said to have been thrown into prison, but such incidents did not interfere with the spread of their doctrines. Any man who has the genuine impulse of the teacher will be more anxious to survive in his books than in the flesh. A feeling of intellectual independence is essential to the proper fulfillment of the teacher's functions, since it is his business to instill what he can of knowledge and reasonableness into the process of forming public opinion. In our more highly organized world we face a new problem. Something called education is given to everybody, usually by the State the teacher has thus become, in the vast majority of cases, a civil servant obliged to carry out the behests of men who have not his learning, who have no experience of dealing with the young, and whose only attitude towards education is that of the propagandist".
(a) What change has occurred in the profession of teaching during the last hundred years?
(b) What do you consider to be the basic functions of a teacher?
(c) What handicaps does a modern teacher face as compared to the teachers in the olden days?
3. Use any FIVE of the following pairs of words in your own sentences so as to bring out the difference in meaning clearly. 
(i) Collision, Collusion
(ii) Verbal, Verbose
(iii) Facilitate, Felicitate
(iv) Conscious, Conscientious
(v) Wave, Waive
(vi) Wreck, Wreak
(vii) Virtual, Virtuous
(viii) Flatter, Flutter
(ix) Deference, Difference
(x) Humility, Humiliation
4. Make sentences to illustrate the meaning of any FIVE of the following. 
(i) Account for
(ii) Carry weight
(iii) To fall back upon
(iv) To be taken aback
(v) A wild goose chase
(vi) By leaps and bounds
(vii) As cool as a cucumber
(viii) To burn midnight oil
5. Given below are a number of key-words. Select any five and indicate the word or phrase you believe is nearest in meaning to the key word. 
(i) Foible: (witty reform, petty lie, personal weakness)
(ii) Premise: (assumption, outline, commitment)
(iii) Sacrosanct: (peaceful, sacred, mundane, painful)
(iv) Calumny: (misfortune, praised, quietness, slander)
(v) Viable: (credible, questionable, workable, vital)
(vi) Decorum: (style of decoration, innocence, social conformity, modestly)
(vii) Touch stone: (goal post, worry bead, magic jewel, standard or criterion)
(viii) Sheepish (embarrassed, conforming, cowardly, unfortunate)
6. Expand the idea contained in any ONE of the following in about 150 words. 
(a) If winter comes, can spring be far behind
(b) Slow and steady wins the race
(c) Eternal vigilance is the price of liberty
(d) Man does not live by the bread alone
(e) Full many a flowers is born to blush unseen and waste its sweetness on the desert air.
(f) Foreign Aid --- Is it a blessing or a curse?
20. YEAR 1990
1. Write a precis of the following passage and suggest a suitable title.
     Not all the rulers signed the Instrument of Accession at once. Afraid that the Socialist Congress Party would strip him of his amusements, flying, dancing girls and conjuring delights which he had only just begun to indulge since he had only recently succeeded his father to the throne, the young Maharajah of Jodhpur arranged a meeting with Jinnah. Jinnah was aware that both Hindu majority and geographical location meant that most of the Princely states would go to India, but he was gratified by the thought that he might be able to snatch one or two from under Patel's nose. He gave Jodhpur a blank sheet of paper.
"Write your conditions on that" he said, "and I'll sign it."
     Elated, the Maharajah returned to his hotel to consider. It was an unfortunate move on his part, for V.P. Menon was there waiting for him. Menon's agents had alerted him to what Jodhpur was up to. He told the young ruler that his presence was requested urgently at a viceroy's House, and reluctantly the young man accompanied him there. The urgent summons had been an excuse, and once they had arrived, Menon had to go on a frantic search for Viceroy, and tell him what had happened. Mountbatten responded immediately. He solemnly reminded Jodhpur that Jinnah could not guarantee and conditions he might make, and that accession to Pakistan would spell disaster for his state. At the same time, he assured him that accession to India would flout automatically mean end of his pleasure. Mountbatten left him alone with Menon to sign a provisional agreement.
2. Read the following passage carefully and answer any FOUR questions given at the end as briefly as possible. 
     Mountbatten was taking his family to Shimla to snatch a few days' rest. He had brought with him a copy of the Draft Plan for the transfer of power (which he had sent to London for approval). Menon had come up and they were expecting Nehru for the weekend. Mountbatten was delighted that Edwina (his wife) and Jawaharlal had taken to each other so much. It could not help his work, and it seemed to do them both so much good. Nehru himself had been in fine form. Mieville and George Nicolas (Principal Secretary to the Viceroy and Deputy Personal secretary to the Viceroy respectively) had shown some dismay at Viceroy's openness with the Indian leader but Mountbatten chose to ignore them. Despite his continuing optimism for the Plan, Menon's contention that it would be well received by the Congress had given him more than usual pause for thought. After dinner on Saturday night, he invited Nehru in the Viceregal Lodge for a nightcap. The Viceroy handed Nehru his drink, and then quite suddenly crossed the room to the safe and unlocked it, taking out the Draft Plan handed him the papers (giving free run his instinct whatever the result). Nehru took the Draft Plan eagerly and sat down with it, immersing himself in it immediately. Mountbatten watched him. The Indian had stopped reading the Plan, and was riffling angrily through the final pages. His face was drawn and pale. Mountbatten was shaken. He had never seen Nehru so furious. Nehru made an effort to control himself. 'I will try to summarize my thoughts tonight and leave you a note of my objections. This much I can tell you now. Congress will never agree to plan of India's fragmentation into a host of little states'. The following day, the Viceroy sat on the secluded rear terrace of Viceregal Lodge while V.P. Menon read over Nehru's promise memorandum of objections. 'Mr. Nehru only questions certain Section of the Plan', said Menon. 'Yes -- the key notes!' snapped Mountbatten. 'Look we have to redraft and resubmit immediately, -- in the light of his comments. Can you do it?' 'Very well, Your Excellency', said Menon. ... I want it (the fresh draft) by six O'clock this evening'.
(a) How did Lord Mountbatten view the relationship between his wife, Lady Edwina and Jawaharlala Nehru?
(b) How did the officers on the staff of Lord Mountbatten view his close relationship with Nehru and what was Mountbatten's reaction to it?
(c) Why did Lord Mountbatten show the Draft Plat to Nehru?
(d) Did Lord Mountbatten show the Draft Plat to Quaid-e-Azam? If not, what will the showing of secret Draft Plan to Nehru alone will be called?
(e) What motivated the drawing up of a fresh Plan for transfer of power?
(f) Within what time was the fresh plan prepared and by whom?
(g) Was the person who drew up the fresh plan, under orders of Mountbatten, a neutral and impartial person, not connected with any Indian community?
3. Make sentences to illustrate the meaning of any FOUR of the following. 
(i) White elephant
(ii) Blue blood
(iii) Cleanse the Augean stable
(iv) Apple of discord
(v) In good books
(vi) Between the devil and the deep sea
(vii) Stare in the face
(viii) Make off with
4. Use any THREE of the following sets of words in sentences so as to bring out clearly the difference in their meaning. 
(i) Adept, Adopt, Adapt
(ii) Alleged, Accused, Suspected
(iii) Bear, Borne, Born
(iv) Raise, Rise, Raze
(v) Smell, Stink, Scent
(vi) Least, Less, Lest
(vii) Quiet, Quit, Quite
(viii) Their, There, They're
5. Given below are a number of key words. Select any THREE and indicate the word or phrase you believe is nearest in meaning to the key word. 
(i) Domesticate: (to turn native, be exclusive, cut claws, tame)
(ii) Antics: (expectation, temper, string games, absurd behaviour)
(iii) Recapitulate: (to surrender, indecisive, summarize, retract)
(iv) Hypothetical: (philosophical, truce, assumed, volatile)
(v) Data: (ideas, belief, point of origin, information)
(vi) Era: (a disaster, cycle, period of history, curious event)
(vii) Trait: (a narrow enclosure, strong point, distinguishing feature, footprint)
6. Develop the idea contained in any ONE of the following in about 150 words.
(a) A thing of beauty is a joy for ever
(b) Cowards die many dimes before their death
(c) In matters of conscience, the law of majority has no place
(d) Heard melodies are sweet, but those unheard are sweeter
(e) Unity, Faith, Discipline
21. YEAR 1991
1. Make a precis of the following passage and suggest a suitable title.
     Generally, European trains still stop at borders to change locomotives and staff. This is often necessary. The German and French voltage systems are incompatible. Spain -- though not Portugal -- has a broad gauge track. English bridges are lower than elsewhere, and passengers on German trains would need a ladder to reach French platforms, twice as high as their own. But those physical constraints pale in comparison to an even more formidable barrier -- national chauvinism. While officials in Brussels strive for an integrated and efficiently run rail network to relieve the Continent's gorged roads and airways, and cut down on pollution, three member countries -- France, Germany and Italy -- are working feverishly to develop their own expensive and mutually incompatible high-speed trains.
2. Read the following passage and answer the questions given at the end as briefly as possible (into 2 lines each)
     "Heads of Government attending the London economic summit will have no excuses if they fail to curb the level of arms exports. A new definitive study by the International Monetary Fund, not generally known for its liberal views, makes it plain that high levels of arms spending in some developing countries have retarded social programmes, economic development projects and the private sector, the latter being an issue with which the seven richest market economies can identify. The IMF, however, picks out 10, consistent offenders among developing countries which spend more than 15 percent of their ODP on the military. They are: Israel, Angola, Oman, Yemen, Jordan, Saudia Arabia, Syria, Egypt and Libya. Employing some unusually forceful language the Fund says, High levels of military expenditure certainly led to low growth and domestic economic hardship in some countries by diverting fund from social programmes, economic development projects and the private sector."
     The study poses a couple of other serious problems for the summitters. It shows for instance, that military expenditure is very sensitive to financial constraints. Thus if countries are deprived of resources then they are forced to cut back on armaments.
(i) What are the heads of Government doing at the summit?
(ii) What are the findings of the new study?
(iii) How does military expenditure affect domestic economy of a country and in what ways?
(iv) What is the relationship between military spending and economic growth?
(v) How is military expenditure related to resources?
3. Use any FIVE of the following pairs of words in your own sentences demonstrating difference in their meaning. 
(i) Access, Excess
(ii) Ascent, Accent
(iii) Resources, Recourse
(iv) Whether, Weather
(v) Premier, Premiere
(vi) Ingenious, Ingenuous
(vii) Felicitate, Facilitate
(viii) Conscious, Conscientious
(ix) Disease, Decease
4. For each of the phrases at the left, write in your answer book the word closest in meaning to the phrase from the four words given on the right. 
(i) Clear away: (clean, empty, removed, finish)
(ii) Break down: (collapse, enter, cut off, begin)
(iii) Keep up: (restrain, control, continue, maintain)
(iv) Turn out: (refuse, start, produced, arrive)
(v) See over: (examine, repair, discovered, inquire)
5. Make sentences for any FIVE of the following to illustrate their meaning.
(i) Damocles' sword
(ii) Every inch
(iii) Spade a spade
(iv) On the sky
(v) Palm off
(vi) Lip service
(vii) A turn coat
(viii) A wild goose chase
6. Write a note of about 120 words on any ONE of the following ideas.
(i) What can't be cured must be endured
(ii) A bee in one's bonnet
(iii) Make a virtue of necessity
(iv) A red rag to a bull
22. YEAR 1992
1. Write a precis of the following passage and suggest a suitable title.
     Throughout the ages of human development men have been subject to miseries of two kinds: those imposed by external nature, and, those that human beings misguidedly inflicted upon each other. At first, by far the worst evils were those that were due to the environment. Man was a rare species, whose survival was precarious. Without the agility of the monkey, without any coating of fur, he has difficulty in escaping from wild beasts, and in most parts of the world could not endure the winter's cold. He had only two biological advantages: the upright posture freed his hands, and intelligence enabled him to transmit experience. Gradually these two advantages gave him supremacy. The numbers of the human species increased beyond those of any other large mammals. But nature could still assert her power by means of flood and famine and pestilence and by exacting from the great majority of mankind incessant toil in the securing of daily bread. In our own day our bondage to external nature is fast diminishing, as a result of the growth of scientific intelligence. Famines and pestilence still occur, but we know better, year by year, what should be done to prevent them. Hard work is still necessary, but only because we are unwise: given peace and co-operation, we could subsist on a very moderate amount of toil. With existing technique, we can, whenever we choose to exercise wisdom, be free of many ancient forms of bondage to external nature. But the evils that men inflict upon each other have not diminished in the same degree. There are still wars, oppressions, and hideous cruelties, and greedy men still snatch wealth from those who are less skillful or less ruthless than themselves. Love of power still leads to vast tyrannies, or ot mere obstruction when its grosser forms are impossible. And fear deep scarcely conscious fear -- is still the dominant motive in very many lives.
2. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end. 
     "Moral self control, and external prohibition of harmful acts, are not adequate methods of dealing with our anarchic instincts. The reason they are inadequate is that these instincts are capable of many disguises as the Devil in medieval legend, and some of these disguises deceive even the elect. The only adequate method is to discover what are the needs of our instinctive nature, and then to search for the least harmful way of satisfying them. Since spontaneity is what is most thwarted by machines, the only thing that can be provided is opportunity, the use made of opportunity must be left to the initiative of the individual. Not doubt, considerable expense would be involved but it would not be comparable to the expense of war. Understanding of human nature must be the basis of any real improvement in human life. Science has done wonders in mastering the laws of the physical world, but our own nature is much less understood, as yet, than the nature of stars and electrons. When science learns to understand human nature, it will be able to bring happiness into our lives which machines and the physical science have failed to create."
(a) Why are moral self-control, and external prohibition inadequate to deal with our narchic instincts?
(b) What is the adequate method of anarchic instincts?
(c) What should be the basis of any real improvement in human life?
(d) How can science help humanity to achieve happiness?
3. Use any FIVE of the following pairs of words in your own sentences so as to bring out the difference in their meaning. 
(i) Assent, Ascent
(ii) Ballot, Ballet
(iii) Corps, Corpse
(iv) Due, Dew
(v) Dairy, Dairy
(vi) Momentary, Momentous
(vii) Route, Rout
(viii) Veil, Vale
4. Frame sentences to illustrate the meaning of any FIVE of the following.
(i) Between the devil and the deep sea
(ii) A wild goose chase
(iii) Over head and ears
(iv) Time and tide
(v) To live from hand to mouth
(vi) To beat about the bush
(vii) To fish in troubled waters
(viii) A bird's eye view
5. Given below are a number of key words. Select any FIVE and indicate the word you believe is nearest in meaning to the key word. 
(i) Perturb: (to upset, to cause doubt, to burden, to test)
(ii) Wry: (twisted, sad, witty, suffering)
(iii) Ferret: (to search, to trap, to hide, to flee)
(iv) Pallid: (weak, pale, dull, scared)
(v) Intrepid: (fearless, cowardly, dull, fool hardy)
(vi) Reprisal: (surprise, award, revision, retaliation)
(vii) Viable: (wavering, divided, capable of living, fading)
(viii) Resurgent: (revolutionary, fertile, rising again, fading)
6. Expand the idea contained in any ONE of the following in about 200 words. 
(i) Uneasy lies the head, that wears a crown
(ii) If winter comes, can spring be far behind
(iii) Mankind is an abstraction, man is a reality
(iv) The Press and the Nation rise and fall together
(v) Environmental pollution --- a global problem
(vi) Population explosion
23. YEAR 1993
1. Make a precis of the following passage and suggest a suitable title. 
    The best aid to give is intellectual aid, a gift of useful knowledge. A gift of knowledge is infinitely preferable to a gift of material things. There are many reasons for this. Nothing becomes truly one's own on the basis of some genuine effort or sacrifice. A gift of material goods can be appropriated by the recipient without effort or sacrifice; it therefore rarely becomes his own and is all too frequently and easily treated as a mere windfall. A gift of intellectual goods, a gift of knowledge, is a very different matter. Without a genuine effort of appropriation on the part of the recipient there is no gift. To appropriate the gift and to make it one's own is the same thing, and 'neither moth nor rust doth corrupt'. The gift of material goods makes people dependent, but the gift of knowledge makes them free. The gift of knowledge also has far more lasting effects and is far more closely relevant to the concept of 'development'. Give a man a fish, as the saying goes, and you are helping him a little bit for a very short time, teach him the act of fishing, and he can help himself all his life. Further, if you teach him to make his own fishing net, you have helped him to become not only self-supporting, but also self-reliant and independent man and businessman.
     This, then should become the ever-increasing preoccupation of aid-programmes to make men self-reliant and independent by the generous supply of the appropriate intellectual gifts, gifts of relevant knowledge on the methods of self-help. This approach, incidentally, has also the advantage of being relatively cheap, of making money go a long way. For POUNDS 100/- you may be able to equip one man with certain means of production, but for the same money you may well be able to teach a hundred men to equip themselves. Perhaps a little 'pump-priming' by way of material goods will in some cases be helpful to speed the process of development. (E.F. Schumacher)
2. Read the following passage and answer the questions given at the end in your own words without lifting sentences from the given text.
     Recently the mass media, formerly subservient to the medical profession, have become increasingly restive and occasionally hostile. In Germany, in particular, the newspapers and television have given a great deal of time and space to the complaints against the medical profession. In Britain on BBC radio and television, the medical practices have come under sharp and aggressive criticism.
     Is this antagonism to the profession justified? And if so, why? I have tried to answer that question by looking at the way it deals with some of the diseases of our civilization, including the most lethal, heart-attacks and cancer. If what emerges in an indictment of the profession, then I would rebut the charge that I am anti-doctor. Montaigne said, "I honour physicians not for the services but for themselves." That goes for me too. (Brian Inglis)
(a) What do you understand by mass media?
(b) What is Brian Inglis stance towards the medical profession?
(c) What is a lethal disease?
(d) Is there a radical change in the presentation of the art of healing by the mass media?
3. Use any FIVE of the following pairs of words so as to bring out the difference in their meaning.
(i) Queue, Cue
(ii) Differ, Defer
(iii) Conscious, Conscience
(iv) Confidant, Confidante
(v) Atheist, Agnostic
(vi) Loose, Lose
(vii) Briefing, Debriefing
(viii) Dual, Duel
(ix) Complement, Compliment
4. Indicate the meaning of any FIVE of the following. 
(i) Brag
(ii) Antiquarian
(iii) Input
(iv) Prodigal
(v) Bibliophile
(vi) Nostalgia
(vii) Output
(viii) Feedback
(ix) Agrarian
5. Use any FIVE of the following in your sentences to bring out their exact meanings. 
(i) Play truant
(ii) Play down
(iii) Turn turtle
(iv) Turn the corner
(v) A fair weather friend
(vi) Under a cloud
(vii) Burn one's boats
(viii) Horse trading
6. Comment on any ONE of the following in about 200 words.
(i) To err is human, to forgive divine
(ii) The child is father of the man
(iii) God helps those who help themselves
(iv) Beggars are not choosers
(v) Handsome is one who handsome does
(vi) The impossible is often the untried
(vii) Man has his will and woman her way
24. YEAR 1994
1. Make a precis of the following passage in about 125 words and suggest a suitable title.
     "Education does not develop autonomously: it tends to be a mirror of society and is seldom at the cutting edge of social change. It is retrospective, even conservative, since it teaches the young what others have experiences and discovered about the world. The future of education will be shaped not by educators, by by changes in demography, technology and the family. Its ends -- to prepare students to live and work in their society -- are likely to remain stable, but its means are likely to change dramatically."
     "Schools, colleges and universities will be redefined in fundamental ways: who is educated, how they are educated, where they are educated - all are due for upheaval. But their primary responsibility will be much the same as it is now: to teach knowledge of languages, science, history, government, economics, geography, mathematics and the arts, as well as the skill necessary to understand today's problems and to use its technologies. In the decades ahead, there will be a solid consensus that, As Horace Mann, an American educator, wrote in 1846, "Intelligence is primary ingredient in the wealth of nations." In recognition of the power of this idea, education will be directed purposefully to develop intelligence as a vital national resources." "Even as nations recognize the value of education in creating human capital, the institutions that provide education will come under increasing strain. State systems of education may not survive demographic and technological change. Political upheavals in unstable regions and the case of international travel will ensure a steady flow of immigrants, legal and illegal, from poor nations to rich ones. As tides of immigration sweep across the rich world, the receiving nations have a choice: they can assimilate the newcomers to the home culture, or they can expect a proliferation of cultures within their borders. Early this century, state systems assimilated newcomers and taught them how to fit in. Today social science frowns on assimilation, seeing it as a form of cultural coercion, so state systems of education are likely to eschew cultural imposition. In effect, the state schools may encourage trends that raise doubts about the purpose or necessity of a state system of education. (Diane Ravieh)
2. Read the following passage and answer the questions given at the end in your own words.
     "Piecing together the story of human evolution is no easy task. The anthropologist Richard Leaky has identified four key steps in our evolution from the earliest hominid to modern humans. First, the occurrence of binedilism between 10 and 4 million years ago. Then the evolution of Homo, with its large brain and capacity to make stone tools -- the earliest examples of which are 2.5 million years old. Next, the evolution of Hemo erects almost 2 million years ago, followed by it migration out of Africa into Eurasia. And finally the appearance of modern human less than 150000 years ago."
     "Through the 10 million years of human evolution, the Earth's climate has changed considerably. During the period that Michael Sarrnthies of Kie has the the "Golden Era" -- up to 3 million years ago -- the world was much warmer than it is now. Then conditions started to deteriorate, and there was a gradual build-up of ice at the poles. Around 2.6 million years ago the climate became cyclical: ice ages characterized by huge ice sheets covering much of North American and northern Europe were followed by inter-glacial, when conditions were comparable to those we see today. Elizabeth Vrba of Yale University, one of the most vigorous proponents of the idea of punctuated equilibrium, has shown that this change in the world's climate 2.6 million years ago had sudden and dramatic effects in Africa. A predominantly warm and most climate was transformed into one which was colder and more arid." (Mark Maslim)
(i) Give dictionary meanings of the underlined words.
(ii) How did the climate become cyclical?
(iii) Define the term "Golden Era".
(iv) Describe the various stages in the development of the human species.
3. Expand the idea embodied in ONE of the following in about 200 words
(i) The administration of justice is the firmest pillar of government.
(ii) Art is long and time is fleeting
(iii) The better part of valour is discretion
(iv) Conscience is God's presence in man
(v) Capital is only the fruit of labour and could never have existed if labour had not first existed.
4. Complete any FIVE of the following sentences supplying the missing word in each. 
(i) From this happy __________ he is awakened by his child asking him to read __________ an incredibly long and boring story about wolves.
(ii) The __________ this is that, when we do travel, we never seem to __________these people.
(iii) The __________ objects were not changes, but the __________ things had altered beyond recognition.
(iv) More than ten days __________ before I again had any __________ with Mrs. Reed.
(v) His __________ has fallen off, revealing a __________ of dirt on his bald head.
(vi) No, we must accept the __________ with what grace we can and leave the weather to its own.
(vii) Take all you need but leave your __________ behind is sound __________ for the holidaymaker.
(viii) Modern advertisements often __________ the human race in a __________ light.
5. Use any FIVE of the following pairs of words in your own sentences to bring out the difference in their meaning. 
(i) All, Awl
(ii) Boy, Buoy
(iii) Fallow, Fellow
(iv) Jewry, Jury
(v) Functional, Dis-functional
(vi) Yew, Ewe
(vii) Allusive, Elusive
(viii) Ladylike, Ladyship
6. Frame sentences to illustrate the meaning of any FIVE of the following. 
(i) Between Scylla and Charybdis
(ii) Hobson's choice
(iii) Sting in the tail
(iv) With open arms
(v) Wash one's hands of
(vi) Count one's chickens
(vii) Burn midnight oil.
25. YEAR 1995
1. Make a precis of the following passage and suggest a suitable title.
     When you see a cockroach on a bed-hug your first reaction is one of disgust and that is immediately, followed by a desire to exterminate the offensive creature. Later, in the garden, you see a butterfly or a dragonfly, and you are filled with admiration at its beauty and grace. Man's feelings towards insects are ambivalent. He realizes that some of them for example, - flies and cockroaches are threats to health. Mosquitoes and tsetse flies have in the past sapped the vitality of entire tribes or nations. Other insects are destructive and cause enormous losses. Such are locusts, which can wipe out whole areas of crops in minutes; and termites, whose often insidious ravages, unless checked at an early stage, can end in the destructing of entire rows of houses.
     Yet men's ways of living may undergo radical changes if certain species of insects were to become extinct. Bees, for example, pollinate the flowers of many plants which are food sources. In the past, honey was the only sweetening agent known to man in some remote parts of the world. Ants, although they bite and contaminate man's food are useful scavengers which consume waster material that would otherwise pollute the environment. Entomologists who have studied insect fossils believe them to have inhabited the earth for nearly 400 million years. Insects live in large numbers almost everywhere in the world, from the hottest deserts and the deepest caves to the peaks of high mountains and even the snows of the polar caps.
     Some insects communities are complex in organizations, prompting men to believe that they possess and ordered intelligence. But such organized behaviour is clearly not due to developed brains. If we have to compare them to humans, bee and ant groups behave like extreme totalitarian societies. Each bee or ant seem to have a determined role to play instinctively and does so without deviation. The word "instinct" is often applied to insect behaviour. But some insect behaviour appears so clear that one tends to think that some sort of intelligence is at work. For example, the worker bee, upon reaching to the hive after having found a new source of nectar, communicates his discovery by a kind of dance which tells other bees the direction and distance away of the nectar.
2. Read the passage and answer the questions that follow it. Use your own English as much as possible, otherwise you will not score high marks. 
     A political community may be viewed as a group of people living together under a common regime, with a common set of authorities to make important decisions for the group of a whole. To the extent that the regime is "legitimate" we would further specify that the people have internalized a common set of rules. Given the predominantly achievement-oriented norms which seem to be necessary concomitant industrial society, these rules must apply equally to the entire population or precisely those criteria (e.g. language) which are a basis for blocking individual social mobility, can become the basis for cleavage which threatens the disintegration of the political community.
     Among post-tribal multilingual populations where the masses are illiterate, generally unaware of national events, and have low expectations of social and economic mobility, the problem is largely irrelevant even if such populations have a linguistically distinct elite group. In contrast, when the general population of a society is going through the early stages of social mobilization, language group conflicts seem particularly likely to occur; they may develop animosities which take on a life of their own and persist beyond the situation which gave rise to them. The degree to which this happens may be significantly affected by the type of policy which the government adopts during the transitional period. The likelihood that linguistic division will lead to political conflict is particularly great when the language cleavages are linked with the presence of dominant group which blocks the social mobility of members of a subordinate group, partly, at least, on the basis of language factors. Where a dominant group holds the positions of power at the head of the major bureaucracies in a modern society, and gives preference in recruitment to those who speak the dominant language, any submerged group has the options of assimilation, non-mobility or group-resistance. If an individual is overwhelmed numerically or psychologically by the dominant language, if his group is proportionately too small to maintain a self contained community withing the society, assimilation usually occurs. In contrast, if one is part of a numerous or geographically concentrated minority group, assimilation is more difficult and is more likely to seem unreasonable. If the group is numerous and mobilized, political resistance is likely.
(i) A political community is identified as a group of people who have three things in common. What are they?
(ii) Why are the rules important?
(iii) Give an other word or paraphrase for
(a) Cleavage; (b) Disintegration
(iv) In the second paragraph the author distinguishes between two types of society. What are they?
(v) What problem is irrelevant to the first type?
(vi) What is likely to happen to the second?
(vii) When will language create political conflict?
(viii) What is assimilation and when does it occur?
(ix) When does group resistance occur?
(x) Give the opposite of the term "dominant group" used in the text.
3. Using about 250 words, comment on ONE of the following subjects. 
(i) Conscience is the basis of justice
(ii) The Industrial Society has reached its logical end
(iii) Eye for eye and tooth for tooth, has gone on too long in the world
(iv) In freedom lies the happiness of the individual
(v) Children have no childhood in Pakistan
(vi) To be clever enough to get all that money, one must be stupid enough to want it.
4. A woman is talking to her next-door neighbour about an elderly married couple she knows, and about their personalities. Using only Adjectives, complete the blanks according to the explanations she gives either before or afterwards. Vague words like "good", etc. will not be acceptable. Write out the passage in your answer books underlying the words you have filled in. 
     "Well, yesterday I mat old Mrs. Ahmad. Lovely old lady she is, always cheerful and helpful and ever so __________ which is more than I can say about that husband of her's. He is so __________  arguing and shouting and complaining all the time. And I thought my husband was __________  until I saw the way he holds to his money! Not that she worries or complains. I have never known any one so __________ . But he is really. I mean he never things about her or what she wants. He's got not feelings at all, the __________  old devil! They are just so different. If you tell her about your problems, she listens and tries to understand and gives you advice, you now, very __________ . And it's only because of her that children have turned so polite and charming, such __________  young people. He just gave them discipline, told them what they couldn't do like some __________  school master. Still, Mrs. Ahmad keeps smiling and happy. I don't think I'd be that __________ , married to him!"
5. Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it means exactly the same as the sentences printed before it. 
(i) One of the local development authority's responsibilities is town planning. The local development authority __________ .
(ii) Pop stars are corrupted by the adulation of their fans. It's the way their __________ .
(iii) There was little contact between these small groups. These small groups __________ .
(iv) I find funny clothes the most irritating about the modern Youth, What __________ .
(v) He sounds as if he spent all his life abroad. He gives __________ .
(vi) Apart from Muhammad Ali, every one else at the meeting was a party member. With __________ .
(vii) He was driving very fast because he didn't know the road was icy. If __________ .
(viii) Whenever you are on a bus, you hear someone talking about politics. You can't go __________
(ix) How long is ti since they went to Gilgit? When __________ .
(x) Most of the theories use the methods of experimental science without first paying attention to play's aesthetic quality. Most of theories do not take __________ .
26. YEAR 1996
1. Make a precis of the following passage about one third of its length and suggest a suitable title. 
     Along with the new revelations of science and psychology there have also occurred distortions of what is being discovered. Most of the scientists and psychologists have accepted Darwin's theory of evolution and his observations on "survival of the fittest" as a final word. While enunciating his postulate on the concept of the fittest, Darwin primarily projected physical force as the main criterion, and remained unmindful of the culture of mind. The psychologists, on the other hand, in his exclusive involvement with the psyche, have overlooked the potential of man's physical-self and the world outside him. No synthesis has been attempted between the two with the obvious result of the one being sacrificed at the altar of the other. This has given birth to a civilization which is wholly based on economic considerations, transforming man into a mere "economic being" and limiting his pleasures and sorrows to sensuous cravings. With the force of his craft and guns, this man of the modern world gave birth to two cannibalistic philosophies,  the cunning capitalism and the callous communism. They joined hands to block the evolution of man as a cultural entity, denuding him of the feelings of live, sympathy, and humanness. Technologically, man is immensely powerful; culturally, he is the creature Stone Age, as lustful as ever, and equally ignorant of his destiny. The two world wars and the resultant attitudes display harrowing distortion of the purposes of life and power. In this agonizing situation the Scientist is harnessing forces of nature, placing them at the feet of his country's leaders, to be used against people in other parts of the world. This state of his servility makes the functions of the scientist appear merely to push humanity to a state of perpetual fear, and lead man to the inevitable destruction as a species with his own inventions and achievements. This irrational situation arises many questions. They concern the role of a scientist, the function of religion, the conduct of politician who is directing the course of history, and the future role of man as a species. There is an obvious mutilation of the purpose of creation, and the relationship between Cosmos, Life, and Man is hidden from eyes; they have not been viewed collectively. 
2. Read the following passage and answer the questions given at the end in your own words. 
     "In countless other places, companies locating overseas are causing environmental harm. Japan has come in for heavy criticism form environmentalists in Southeast Asia for allegedly locating extremely harmful processes abroad because they no longer can pass environmental muster at home. A Malaysian subsidiary of the Mitsubishi Kasai Corp. was force by court order to close after years of protests by local residents that the plant's dumping of radioactive thorium was to blame for unusually high leukemia rates in the region. Several multinational corporations operating in South Africa, including local subsidiaries of the Bayer Pharmaceuticals concern and a Duracell battery plant, have been implicated by local environs mentalists in toxic catastrophes that they believe have caused cancer and other severe health problems among workers. Despite the threats,  international markets also help diffuse many environmentally helpful products around the world. Trade in pollution control technologies is on the rise, particularly as environmental laws are strengthened in developing countries. International trade also can put pressure on companies to match the environmental immolation of their international competitors, as in the U.S. Car industry's response to Japan's advances in fuel efficiency. Meanwhile, there are indications that, contrary to some people's expectation, being open to foreign investment can help prevent the caution of pollution havens rather than cause them. Research by Nancy Birds all and David Wheeler of the World Bank found that dirty industries developed faster in Latin American economies relatively in hospitable to foreign investment than in open ones. Another World Bank study looked at the rates at which 60 different countries its way to nations open to foreign investment far more rapidly than those closed toll. The authors of these studies suggest several possible explanations for such trends. For one, closed economies protect capital --- Intensive, pollution-intensive industries in situations where low-cost labour otherwise would have been a draw to less polluting industries. Second, companies trying to sell their goods in industrial countries need to please the growing number of "green consumers" there. Finally the equipment used by multinational tends on balance to be newer and cleaner than that employed by national industries. 
(i) Why is Japan under heavy criticism?
(ii) What did the court decree in Malaysia and why?
(iii) How does a certain industry cause cancer to the local resident?
(iv) What could be the role of international markets in controlling pollution?
(v) What is a "pollution-haven"?
(vi) What does the research by Nancy Birds all and David Wheeler say?
(vii) What does "the other study" by World Bank reveal?
(viii) Who is a "green consumer"?
(ix) How do you explain "capital-intensive" and "pollution-intensive"?
(x) How can we save the local residents from the pollution hazards?
3. Write a comprehensive note of approximately 250 words on ONE of the following subjects. 
(i) Religion is the greatest benefactor of human race
(ii) The devotional believers coin baseless stories about their gurus
(iii) And when I love thee not, chaos is come again
(iv) Every system of government emerges from its economic system
(v) Cleanliness is next to Godliness
4. Correct the following sentences. 
(i) When public transport is better developed, there will no longer be so many cars driving people to work. 
(ii) The subject of my paper is about air pollution. 
(iii) The princess's father was a good man and who was kind. 
(iv) A morality play is where the characters represents virtue and vices. 
(v) A square is when all four sides are the same length. 
(vi) Evil and suffering has always troubled man. 
(vii) Why does such disturbing things exist?
(viii) Neither her cousins nor her aunt were at home. 
(ix) Neither Tariq not Khalid are worthy of her. 
(x) The first fleet of cars were made of copper. 
(xi) To be honest lies must never be told. 
5. Explain FIVE of the following idioms by using them into sentences. 
(i) Bear out
(ii) Back out
(iii) Carry over
(iv) Come off
(v) Fall back
(vi) Figure out
(vii) Live with
(viii) Set in
(ix) Cover up
(x) Iron out
6. Use any FIVE of the following pairs of words or phrases into sentences so that the difference in the meaning of each pair is made clear. 
(i) Altogether, All together
(ii) Ambiguous, Ambivalent
(iii) Apprise, Appraise
(iv) Bad, Badly
(v) Compare, Contrast
(vi) Deduce, Imply
(vii) Differ from, Differ with
(viii) Farther, Further
27. YEAR 1997
1. Write a precis of the following passage and suggest a suitable title. 
     Exploration in the Arctic Circle still offers countless opportunities for fresh discoveries, but it is an adventure which is not to be undertaken lightly. As an occupation it is more lonely and remote than anything else in the world and at any moment the traveller must be prepared to encounter hazard and difficulty which call for all his skill and enterprise. Nevertheless such exploration with be carried as long as there are investigated areas to attract the daring and as long as the quest for knowledge inspires mankind. 
     Investigations have shown that the Arctic zone is rich in mineral deposits, but even if these deposits were themselves of little value, the economic importance of the Arctic would not be appreciably lessened. For it is generally agreed that "weather is made in the North", and as the success or failure of the harvests all over the world is largely determined by the weather, it follows that agriculture and all those industrial and commercial activities dependent upon it must be considerably affected by the accuracy of the daily weather reports. Modern meteorologists regard the conditions prevailing in the Arctic as of first-rate importance in helping them to arrive at accurate results in their forecasts. 
     Yet quite apart from any economic or other practical considerations, there is a strange fascination about this vast unconquered region of stern northern beauty. Those who have once entered the vast polar regions  like to speak of their inexpressive beauty, the charm of the yellow sun and dazzling ice pack, the everlasting snows and unmapped land where one never knows what lies ahead; it may be a gigantic glacier, which reflects a bean of sunlight over its frozen expanse or some wonderful fantastically shaped cliff which makes an unfading impression on the memory. It may even be an iceberg stately and terrifying, moving on its relentless way, for the Arctic is the birthplace of the great icebergs which threaten navigation. 
2. Read the following passage carefully and answer any FOUR questions given at the end as briefly as possible. 
     Do we realize the extent to which the modern world relies for its opinions on public utterances and the Press? Do we realize how completely we are all in the power of report? Any little lie or exaggerated sentiment uttered by one with a bee in his bonnet, with a principle, or an end to serve, can, if cleverly expressed and distributed, distort the views of thousands, sometimes of millions. Any willful suppression of truth for Party or personal ends can so falsify our vision of things as to plunge us into endless cruelties and follies. Honesty of though and speech and written word is a jewel, and they who curb prejudice and seek honourably to know and speak the truth are the only true builders of a better life.  But what a dull world if we can't chatter and write irresponsibly, can't slope over with hatred, or pursue our own ends without scruple! To be tied to the apron-strings of truth, or coiffed with the nightcap of silence, who in this age of cheap ink and oratory will submit to such a fate?
     Report, I would almost say, now rules the world and holds the fate of man on the sayings of its many tongues. If the good sense of mankind cannot somehow restrain utterance and cleanse report, Democracy, so highly vaunted, will not save us; and all the glib words of promise spoken might as well have lain unuttered in the throats of orators. We are always in peril under Democracy of taking the line of least resistance and immediate material profit. The gentleman, for instance, whoever he was, who first discovered that he could sell his papers better by undercutting the standard of his rivals, and, appealing to the lower tastes of the Public under the flag of that convenient expression "what the Public wants", made a most evil discovery. The Press is for the most part in the hands of men who know what is good and right. It can be a great agency for leveling up. But whether on the whole it is so or not, one continually hears doubted. There ought to be no room for doubt in any of the our minds that the Press is on the side of the angels. 
(i) Suggest an appropriate title for the passage. 
(ii) Choose FIVE of the following words and give for each another word, or phrase, of similar meaning which might be used to replace the world in the passage. 
Sentiment, Distort, Willful, Curb, Vaunted, Glib, Material, Agency
(iii) Explain what is meant by any THREE of the following phrases as used in the passage. 
With a principle of an end to serve, This age of cheap ink and oratory, Undercutting the standard, On the side of the angels. 
3. Write a comprehensive note of approximately 250 words on ONE of the following subjects. 
(i) The problem of Noise in the modern world
(ii) The motorway age
(iii) A contented mind is a blessing kind
(iv) A competitive society brings out the best in every individual
(v) The supernatural man (or woman) 
4. Correct the following sentences. 
(i) The idea of me flying is too silly to even contemplate. 
(ii) He reads better than any boy in the class. 
(iii) Every citizen should use their role. 
(iv) I do not remember him giving me a present. 
(v) Whom would you say is likely to win the fight?
(vi) Neither him nor his friend were hurt. 
(vii) Passing by the damage house, a brick fell on my shoulder. 
(viii) My cousin always has and always will be interested in the theatre. 
(ix) The vast extent of the steppes of Central Asia is enormous. 
(x) Nobody didn't ought to lose their way so easy in a small town. 
5. Rearrange the following in pairs of synonyms. 
garrulous, selfish, near, talkative, obstruct, egoistic, wealthy, impede, affluent, filch, imminent, assess, tempting, ponder, augment, enticing, meditate, increase, estimate, steal. 
6. Explain any FIVE of the following idioms by using them into sentences. 
(i) Th beat the air
(ii) To beggar description
(iii) To bring to mind
(iv) To call in question
(v) To cap it all
(vi) To clip one's wings
(vii) To cross the Rubicon
(viii) To feel the pulse
(ix) To fly in the face of
(x) To rise like a phoenix form its ashes
28. YEAR 1998
1. Make a precis of the following passage about one third of its length and suggest a suitable title. 
     Lying is indeed an accursed vice. We are men, and we have relations with one another by speech. If we recognized the horror and gravity of an untruth, we should more justifiably punish it with fire than any other crime. I commonly find people taking the most ill-advised pains to correct their children for their harmless faults, and worrying them about heedless acts which leave no trace and have no consequences. Laying - and in a lesser degree obstinacy - are, in my opinion, the only faults whose birth and progress we should consistently oppose. They grow with a child's growth, and once the tongue has got the knack of lying, it is difficult to imagine how impossible it is to correct it. Whence it happens that we find some otherwise excellent men subject to this fault and enslaved by it. I have a decent lad as my tailor, whom I have never heard to utter a single truth, even when it would have been to his advantage.
     If, like the truth, falsehood had only one face, we should know better where we are, for we should then take the opposite of what a liar said to be the truth. But the opposite of a truth has a hundred thousand shapes and a limitless field. 
     The Pythagoreans regard good as certain and finite, and evil as boundless and uncertain. There are a thousand ways of missing the bull's eye, only one of hitting it. I am by no means sure that I could induce myself to tell a brazen and deliberate lie even to protect myself from the most obvious and extreme danger. St Augustine said that we are better off in the company of a dog we know than in that of a man whose language we don not understand. Therefore, those of different nations do not regard one another as men and how much less friendly is false speech than silence. 
2. Read the following passages and answer the questions given at the end in your own words. 
     Accumulated property treads the powers of thought in the dust, extinguishes the sparks of genius, and reduces the great mass of mankind to be immersed in sordid cars; beside depriving the rich, as we have already said, of the most salubrious and effectual motives to activity. If superfluity were banished, the necessity for the greater part of the manual industry of mankind would be superseded; and the rest, being amicably shared among all the active and vigorous members of the community, would be burdensome to none. Every man would have a frugal, yet wholesome diet; every man would go forth to that moderate exercise of his corporal functions that would give hilarity to the spirits; none would be made torpid with fatigue, but all would have leisure to cultivate the kindly and philanthropic affections of the soul, and to let loose his faculties in the search of intellectual improvement. What a contrast does this scene present us with the present state of human society, where the peasant and the labourer work till their understandings are benumbed with toil, their sinews contracted and made callous by being for ever on the stretch, and their bodies invaded, with infirmities and surrendered to an untimely grave? What is the fruit of this disproportioned and unceasing toil? At evening they return to a family, famished with hunger, exposed half naked to the inclemencies of the sky, hardly sheltered, and denied the slenderest instruction, unless in a few instances, where it is dispensed by the hands of ostentatious charity, and the first lesson communicated is unprincipled servility. All this while their rich neighbour ....
     How rapid and sublime would be the advances of intellect, if all men were admitted into the field of knowledge! At present ninety-nine persons in a hundred are no more excited to any regular exertions of general and curious thought, than the brutes themselves. What would be the state of public mind in a nation, where all were wise, all had laid aside the shackles of prejudice and implicit faith, all adopted with fearless confidence the suggestions of truth, and the lethargy of the soul was dismissed for ever? It is to be presumed that the inequality of mind would in a certain degree be permanent; but it is reasonable to believe that the geniuses of such and age would far surpass the grandest exertions of intellect that are at present known. Genius would not be depressed with false wants and niggardly patronage. 
(i) Suggest an appropriate title for the passage. 
(ii) What does the writer mean by the following expressions?
Hilarity of spirit, Corporal functions, Torpid with fatigue, Let loos faculties. 
(iii) What according to the writer is the cause of the poor man's short life?
(iv) Does the writer favour charity for the poor? Support your answer with the writer's argument. 
(v) How does the writer compare the present day man with brutes?
(vi) The writer does not state why there will always be an inequality of mind among men, suggest a reason from your own knowledge of human psychology. 
(vii) In the passage the writer leaves his statement about the rich neighbour incomplete. Draw briefly the contrast the writer had in mind. 
(viii) What according to the writer would promote intellectual improvement?
(ix) Given another word with similar meaning for
Callous, Sinews, Inclemencies, Ostentatious, Benumbed, Salubrious
3. Write a comprehensive note of approximately 250 words on ONE of the following subjects. 
(i) The two main reason for reading imaginative literature are pleasure and insight
(ii) Some are born great, some achieve greatness, and some have greatness thrust upon them. 
(iii) Democracy if it is stupid and unjust, is as evil as, stupid and cruel tyranny. (Socrates)
(iv) The so-called custodians of human rights are guilty of violating the rights of the backward nations
4. Correct the following sentences. 
(i) This is all the father you can go. 
(ii) He seemed to be an industrious person but this was only an allusion
(iii) His avocation is dentistry. 
(iv) The antiquarian bade one million dollars for the old painting. 
(v) The ferry collided against the tug-boat. 
(vi) Poetry is more sensual than prose. 
(vii) Both Naeem and Shahid is tired, they should go back. 
(viii) He was seeking political asylum but was not permitted to emigrate to USA. 
(ix) I wouldn't be in your books for the all the wealth in the world. 
(x) Are you trying to infer that I would be something dishonest?
5. Complete the conversation by choosing the correct idioms. 
The tricks of the trade; the blessing in disguise; his own man; the gift of the gab; the pillar of society; another cup of tea; a mug's game; a piece of cake; a feather in his cap; the rank and file
     Have you heard about Adams? He says that losing his job was probably __________ because he was tired of being just one of a thousand wage-earners at the firm, just one of __________. He thinks working for someone else is really __________ when you can work for yourself. So she is going to open up his own computer shop. 
"Really! well it will be a __________ if he makes a success of it."
"He is taking Jan into partnership with him."
"Jan, eh? Now he's __________ I don't like him at all."
"Well he may not be what one could call __________ but he is the right sort of man to get a business going. He's a good talker."
"Oh yes Jan has certainly got __________ and it won't take him long to learn __________
"I told Adam that having his own business certainly won't be __________"
"It's hard work. But he is determined to be __________ at last, so I wish him good luck."
6. Use FIVE of the following pairs of words so as to bring out the difference in their meanings. 
(i) Occlude, Occult
(ii) Practical, Practicable
(iii) Raze, Raise
(iv) Cannon, Canon
(v) Avenge, Revenge
(vi) Caret, Carat
(vii) Revel, Reveal
(viii) Aviary, Apiary
(ix) Demesne, Demean
7. Explain FIVE of the following idioms by using them into sentences. 
(i) The last ditch
(ii) A square meal
(iii) Go public
(iv) Run riot
(v) The backroom boys
(vi) Foot the bill
(vii) Set the pace
(viii) At times
(ix) Steal the show
(x) Grey matter
29. YEAR 1999
1. Make a precis of the following passage about one third of its length and suggest a suitable title. 
     To have faith in the dignity and worth of the individual man as an end in himself, to believe that it is better to be governed by persuasion than by coercion, to believe that fraternal goodwill is more worthy than a selfish and contentions spirit, to believe that in the long run all values are inseparable from the love of truth and the disinterested search for it, to believe that knowledge and the power it confers should be used to promote the welfare and happiness of all men, rather than to serve the interests of those individual and classes whom fortune and intelligence endow with temporary advantage -- these are the values which are affirmed by the traditional democratic ideology. The case of democracy is that it accepts the rational and humane values as ends and proposes as the means of realizing them the minimum of coercion and the maximum of voluntary assent. We may well abandon the cosmological temple in which the democratic ideology originally enshrined these values, without renouncing the faith it was designed to celebrate. The essence of that faith is belief in the capacity of man, as a rational and humane creature to achieve the good life by rational and humane means. The chief virtue of democracy and the sole reason for cherishing it is that with all its faults it still provides the most favourable conditions for achieving that end by those means. 
2. Read the following passage and answer the questions given at the end in your own words. 
     These phenomena, however, are merely premonitions of a coming storm which is likely to sweep over the whole of India and the rest of Asia. This is the inevitable outcome of a wholly political civilization which has looked upon man as a thing to be exploited and not as a personality to be developed and enlarged by purely cultural forces. The people of Asia are bound to rise against the acquisitive economy which the West have developed and imposed on the nations of the East. Asia cannot comprehend modern Western capitalism with its undisciplined individualism. The faith which you represent recognized the worth of the individual, and disciplines him to give away all to the service of God and man. Its possibilities are not yet exhausted. It can still create a new world where the social rank of man is not determined by his caste or colour or the amount of dividend he earns, but by the kind of life he lives, where the poor tax the rich, where human society is founded not on the equality of stomachs but on the equality of spirits, where an untouchable can marry the daughter of the king, where private ownership is a trust and where capital cannot be allowed to accumulate so as to dominate the real producer of wealth. This superb idealism of your faith, however, needs emancipation from the medieval fancies of theologians and logists. Spiritually, we are living in a prison house of thoughts and emotions which during the course of centuries we have woven round ourselves. And be it further said to the shame of us - men of older generations - that we have failed to equip the younger generation for the economic, political and even religious crisis that the present age is likely to bring. The while community needs a complete overhauling of its present mentality in order that it may again become capable of feeling the urge of fresh desires and ideals. The Indian Muslim has long ceased to explore the depths of his own inner life. The result is that he has ceased to live in the full glow and colour of life, and is consequently in danger of an unmanly compromise with forces which he is made to think he cannot vanquish in open conflict. He who desires to change an unfavourable environment must undergo a complete transformation of his inner being. God changes not the condition of a people until they themselves take the initiative to change their condition by constantly illuminating the zone of their daily activity in the light of a definite ideal. Nothing can be achieved without a firm faith in the independence of one's own inner life. This faith alone keeps a people's eye fixed on their goal and save them from perpetual vacillation. The lesson that past experiences has brought to you must be taken to heart. Expect nothing from any side. Concentrate your whole ego on yourself alone and ripen your clay into real manhood if you wish to see you aspiration realized. 
(i) What is the chief characteristic of the modern political civilization?
(ii) What are the possibilities of our faith which can be of advantage to the world?
(iii) What is the chief danger confronting the superb idealism of our faith?
(iv) Why is the Indian Muslim in danger of coming to an unmanly compromise with the forces opposing him?
(v) What is necessary for any achievement?
(vi) Explain the following expressions as used in the passage. 
Acquisitive economy, Undisciplined individualism, Superb idealism, Unmanly compromise, Perpetual vacillation
(vii) Suggest an appropriate title for the passage. 
3. Write a comprehensive note of approximately 250 words on ONE of the following subjects. 
(i) The hand that rocks the cradle rules the world
(ii) Charm strikes the sight but merit wins the soul
(iii) Lord, What Fools these Mortals be!
(iv) Is Democracy possible in the Third World?
4. Re-write the following passage after correcting its grammatical errors. 
     The world is poised on a dangerous and instable balance of terror, unlike the wars of the past, future war threatened to do away the human race. Future of mankind depends on peace. Without it, countless millions would be wiped of the face of earth. This fear had manifested itself in a persistent demand of disarmament -- total and universal. It is, indeed, a sad reflection on human nature that while he sings praise about the virtue of peace, they continued march on a suicidal course of war. In spite of forty years of negotiation the giants did not even scraped the tips of the icebergs. 
5. Fill in the blanks of the passage given below. 
     An ideal college should subscribe to an ideal scheme  of education for the one is inseparable from the other. The chief __________ of education, it is said, is the total end __________ development of the individual. Any __________ system of education must provide the student firstly, with the __________ for logical and objective thinking. Without __________ skill it's difficult to conceive of any one's __________ and continually expanding the knowledge which is __________ indispensable to an educated man __________ education which is in practice bookish and __________ from life is lopsided and serves no __________ purpose. Secondly, it must contribute to the __________ of morality, or right conduct or good __________ in its widest sense. No academy __________ its name can afford or be __________ to this aspect, for its importance of __________ the syllabic domain. It must help __________ student to discover a meaningful act of __________ and a personal philosophy of life __________ it must pay adequate attention to __________ health and work on the premise that a healthy mind is __________ without a healthy body. 
6. Make sentences of any FIVE of the following idioms. 
(i) A jaundiced eye
(ii) A left handed compliment
(iii) The ruling passion
(iv) Tower of strength
(v) Steal a march on someone
(vi) In one's bones
(vii) Hang in the balance
(viii) Fly in the ointment
(ix) Close-fisted
30. YEAR 2000
1. Make a precis of the following passage in about one third of its length. Suggest a suitable title also. 
     Besant describing the middle class of the 9th century wrote, "In the fist place it was for more a class apart." In no sense did it belong to society. Men in professions of any kind (except in the Army and Navy) could only belong to society by right birth and family connections; men in trade - bankers were still accounted tradesmen - could not possibly belong to society. That is to say, if they went to live in the country they were not called upon by the country families and in the town they were not admitted by the men into their clubs, or by the ladies into their houses.. The middle class knew its own place, respected itself, made its own society for itself, and cheerfully accorded to rank the deference due."
     Since then, however, the life of the middle classes had undergone great changes as their numbers had swelled and their influence had increased.
     Their already well-developed consciousness of their own importance had deepened. More critical than they had been in the past of certain aspects of aristocratic life, they wee also more concerned with the plight of the poor and the importance of their own values of society, thrift, hard work, piety and respectability as examples of ideal behaviour for the guidance of the lower orders. Above all they were respectable. There were divergences of  opinion as to what exactly was respectable and what was not. There were, nevertheless, certain conventions, which were universally recognized: wild and drunker behaviours were certainly not respectable, nor were godlessness or avert promiscuity, not in ill-ordered home life, unconventional manners, self-indulgence of flamboyant clothes and personal adornments. 
2. Read the following passage and answer the questions given at the end in your own words. 
     The vitality of any teaching, or historical movement, depends upon what it affirms rather than upon what it affirms rather than upon what it denies, and its survival and continued power will often mean that its positives are insufficiently regarded by opposing schools. The grand positives of Bentham were benevolence and veracity: the passion for the relief of man's estate, and the passion of truth. Bent ham's multifarious activities, pursued without abatement to the end of a long life, were inspired by "dominant and all-comprehensive desire for the amelioration of human life."; they were inspired, too, by the belief that he had found the key to all moral truth. This institution, this custom, this code, this system of legislation -- does it promotes human happiness? Then it is sound. This theory, this creed, this moral teaching -- does it rightly explain why virtue is admirable, or why duty is obligatory? The limitation of Bentham can be gauged by his dismissal of all poetry (and most religion) as "misrepresentation"; this is his negative side. But benevolence and veracity are Supreme Values, and if it falls to one of the deniers to be their special advocate, the believers must have long been drowsed. Bentham believes the Church teaches children insincerity by making them affirm what they cannot possibly understand or mean. They promise, for example, to fulfill the undertaking of their god -- parents, they will "renounce the devil and all his works, the pomps and vanity of this wicked world" etc. 'The Devil' Bentham comments: "who or what is he, and how is it that he is renounced?" Has the child happened to have any dealings with him? Let the Archbishop of Canterbury tell us, and let him further explain how his own "works" are distinguished from the aforesaid "Pomps and Vanity". What king, what Lords Temporal or Spiritual, have ever renounced them? (Basil Willey)
(i) What does the writer mean by the following expressions:
Multifarious activities, Amelioration of human life, It is sound, Be their special advocate, Renounce the devil, Drowsed, Gauged, Aforesaid. 
(ii)  On what grounds does Bentham believe that the Church teaches children insincerity?
(iii) What is Bentham's philosophy based upon?
(iv) What according to the writer is Bentham's limitation?
(v) In what context has the Archbishop of Canterbury been quoted i.e. is he praised or condemned? 
3. Write a comprehensive note (250-300 words) on ONE of the following subjects. 
(i) Society is produced by our wants and government by our wickedness (Thomas Pain)
(ii) We learn from history that we do not learn form history. (Hegel)
(iii) Liberty doesn't work as well in practice as it does in speeches. (Will Rogers)
(iv) Politics is strife of interests masquerading as a contest of principles. (Ambrose Pierce)
4. Correct the following sentences. 
(i) The lake freezed rapidly. 
(ii) The firm was unwilling to forego its usual commission. 
(iii) We watched the lambs gamble on the green. 
(iv) He belonged to the gild of carpenters. 
(v) He hadn't ought to have spoken. 
(vi) Is this his half-brother?
(vii) Hay! Watch out for the car!
(viii) This is the historical spot when he was shot dead. 
(ix) We bought a Japanee print. 
(x) Fresh flowers smell sweetly. 
5. Use any FIVE of the following idioms in sentences to make their meaning clear. 
(i) Blow one's top
(ii) A cock and bull story
(iii) Find one's feet
(iv) Call it a night
(v) The tip of the iceberg
(vi) Below par
(vii) From pillar to post
(viii) Hang up
(ix) Turn some one in
(x) By and by
6. Use any FIVE of the following pairs of words in sentences of your own to bring out the difference. 
(i) Knead, need
(ii) Queue, Cue
(iii) Quarts, Quartz
(iv) Choral, Coral
(v) Discrete, Discreet
(vi) Epoch, Epic
(vii) Libel, Liable
(viii) Male, Mail
(ix) Banned, band
(x) Barred, Bard
7. Complete the conversation with the correct idiom in the correct form. 
Keep regular hours, An unearthly hour, The small hours, A night owl, Have a night out, At any moment, Have one's moments, Have a minute to all one's own, A night on the town, On the spur of the moment. 
     "Morning Paul! You look tired". "Yes! I am. I had a late night last night. I'm not usually __________ but I __________ with some friends yesterday. I have been so busy all week that I've hardly __________, so I really enjoyed __________. I start work early, so I usually __________ but yesterday was an exception. I didn't think. I got into bed and must have fallen asleep, because the next thing I knew my landlady was shaking me, saying she was sorry to wake me at such __________, but she thought there was a burglar in the kitchen". 
"Well where was her husband?"
"Mr. Dick's working on the night-shift, and I was the only man in the house. I am usually a coward, but I do __________, so I grabbed my tennis racket, which was the only thing I could think of __________, and crept downstairs". 
"And then?"
"I saw a dark figure in the kitchen with a knife in his hand, ready to strike __________. I was just about to hit him with the racket, when a voice shouted out", "Hey! It's me! It was Mr. Dick. He had forgotten his sandwiches". 
31. YEAR 2001
1. Make a precis of the following passage in about one third of its length and suggest a suitable heading. 
     It was not from want of perceiving the beauty of external nature but from the different way of perceiving it, that the early Greeks did not turn their genius to portray, either in colour or in poetry, the outlines, the hues, and contrasts of all fair valley, and hold cliffs, and golden moons, and rosy lawns which their beautiful country affords in lavish abundance. 
     Primitive people never so far as I know, enjoy when is called the picturesque in nature, wild forests, beetling cliffs, reaches of Alpine snow are with them great hindrances of human intercourse, and difficulties in the way of agriculture. They are furthermore the homes of the enemies of mankind, of the eagle, the wold, or the tiger, and are most dangerous in times of earthquake or tempest. Hence the grand and striking features of nature are at first looked upon with fear and dislike. 
     I do not suppose that Greeks different in the respect form other people, except that the frequent occurrence of mountains and forests made agriculture peculiarly difficult and intercourse scanty, thus increasing their dislike for the apparently reckless waste in nature. We have even in Homer a similar feeling as regards the sea, -- the sea that proved the source of all their wealth and the condition fo most of their greatness. Before they had learned all this, they called it "the unvintagable sea" and looked upon its shore as merely so much waste land. We can, therefore, easily understand, how in the first beginning of Greek art, the representation of wild landscape would find no place, whereas, fruitful fields did not suggest themselves as more than the ordinary background. Art is those days was struggling with material nature to which it felt a certain antagonism. 
     There was nothing in the social circumstances of the Greeks to produce any revolution in this attitude during their greatest days. The Greek republics were small towns where the pressure of the city life was not felt. But as soon as the days of the Greeks republics were over, the men began to congregate for imperial purposes into Antioch, or Alexandria, or lastly into Rome, than we seek the effect of noise and dust and smoke and turmoil breaking out into the natural longing for rural rest and retirement so that from Alexander's day -- We find all kinds of authors -- epic poets, lyricist, novelists and preachers -- agreeing in the precise of nature, its rich colours, and its varied sounds. (Mohaffy: Rambles in Greece)
2. Read the following passage and answer the questions given at the end in your own words. 
     Poetry is the language of imagination and the passions. It relates to whatever gives immediate pleasure or pain to human mind. It comes home to the bosoms and business of men: for nothing but what comes home to them in the most general and intelligible shape can be a subject of poetry. Poetry is the universal language which the heart holds with nature and itself. He who has a contempt for poetry cannot have much respect for himself or for anything else. Whatever there is a sense of beauty, or power, or harmony, as in the motion of the waves of the sea, in the growth of a flower, there is poetry in its birth. If history is a grave study, poetry may be said to be graver, its materials lie deeper, and are spread wider. History treats, for the most part, cumbersome and unwieldy masses of things, the empty cases in which the affairs of the world are packed, under the heads of intrigue or war, in different states, and from century to century but there is no though of feeling that can have entered into the mind of man which he would be eager to communicate to others, or they would listen to with delight, that is not a fit subject for poetry. It is not a branch of authorship: it is "the stuff of which our life is made". The rest is mere oblivion, a dead letter, for all that is worth remembering gin life is the poetry of it. Fear is poetry, hope is poetry, love is poetry, hatred is poetry. Poetry is that fine particle within us that expands, refines, raises our whole being; without which "man's life is poor as beasts". In fact, man is a poetical animal. The child is a poet when he first plays hide and seek, or repeats the story of Jack the Giant Killer, the shepherd -- boy is a poet when he first crowns his mistress with a garland of flowers; the countryman when he stops to look at the rainbow; the miser when he hugs his gold; the courtier when he builds his hope upon a smile; the vain, the ambitious the proud, the choleric man, the hero and the coward, the beggar and the king, all live in a world of their own making; and the poet does no more than describe what all others think and act. (Hazlitt)
(i) In what sense is poetry the language of the imagination and the passion?
(ii) How is poetry the Universal Language of the heart?
(iii) What is the difference between history and poetry?
(iv) Explain the phrase: "Man is a poetical animal". 
(v) What are some of the actions which Hazlitt calls poetry and its doers poet?
(vi) Explain the following expressions in the passage. 
(a) It relates to whatever gives immediate pleasure or pain to human heat. 
(b) A sense of beauty, or power, or harmony. 
(c) Cumbersome and unwieldy masses of things.
(d) It is the stuff of which our life is made. 
(e) The poet does no more than describe what all others think and act. 
3. Write a comprehensive note (250-300) on ONE of the following subjects.
(i) Modern history registers so primary and rapid changes that it cannot repeat itself
(ii) The golden rule is that there is not golden rule. (G.B. Shaw)
(iii) Crisis tests the true mettle of man
(iv) It is excellent to have a giant's strength; but it is tyrannical to use it like a giant. 
4. Correct the following sentences. 
(i) His wisdom consisted of his handling the dangerous situation successfully. 
(ii) Many a girls were appearing in the examination. 
(iii) The vehicles run fastly on the Motorway. 
(iv) Smoking is injurious of health. 
(v) He availed of this situation very intelligently. 
(vi) The black vermin is an odious creature. 
(vii) What to speak of mean, even, vegetables were not available now. 
(viii) No sooner we left our home when it started raining. 
(ix) Little money I had I spent on the way. 
(x) The criminal was sent on the goal. 
5. Use FIVE of the following in sentences to make their meaning clear. 
(i) The teaming meanings
(ii) The kick the bucket
(iii) To push to the walls
(iv) To read between the lines
(v) To be at daggers drawn
(vi) To throw down the gauntlet
(vii) To be a Greek
(viii) To stand on ceremony
(ix) From the horse's mouth
(x) To carry the cross
6. Use FIVE of the following pairs of words in sentences. 
(i) Brooch, Broad
(ii) Collusion, Collision
(iii) Fain, Feign
(iv) Hoard, Horde
(v) Illusion, Delusion
(vi) Persecute, Prosecute
(vii) Prescribe, Proscribe
(viii) Respectfully, Respectively
(ix) Complecent, Complaisant
7. Read the following dialogue and place the following words in it at proper places. 
(i) Sweating away as usual
(ii) Health first, exam second
(iii) Can you stury while confined to bed
(iv) Has anyone be marketed anywhere?
(v) An unwanted commodity
(vi) As long as there is life, ther is hope
(vii) You will become a thin, gaunt, half-blind wealking with sunken cheeks and haggard looks. 
(viii) Once again grwo into a rose-cheeked young man. 
(ix) There is no deviation form it. 
(x) The paring of ways.
Good morning Waseem __________ and looking pale. Come out in the open. 
I am sorry, Nadeem. I cannot do that. The examination is drawing near and I want ti utilize every minute for its preparation. 
To hell with exams __________
Well, health is good but failure is bad. Therefore, one should take books and study them for the University exam. 
Suppose you grow into a bookworm and as a result fall ill. __________ Again, many boys work hard and get degrees. Do you think they get jobs. Our society is flooded with graduates but __________? They are roaming about with degrees in their hand. They are __________. 
Well. Degree is an ornament in itself, job or no job. Besides, there is no need to be hopeless. I am sure when I get a degree with a good grade, I am sure to get a job in a Government office or in a private firm. You know that __________. 
Well, how should I explain to you the blessing of a good health. If you continue treading on this path, __________. Please come into the fresh air take exercise and play some game and __________ Don't grow old prematurely. 
Please listen, I want to be a graduate this year, now or never. I have made up my mind for this and __________. 
Well, if this is your aim, then __________
32. YEAR 2002
1. Make a precis of the the given passage, also give a suitable heading. 
     'The official name of our species is homo sapiens; but there are many anthropologists who prefer to think of man as homo Fabcr-thc smith, the maker of tools. It would be possible, I think, to reconcile these two definitions in a third. If man is a knower and an efficient doer, it is only because he is also a talker. In order to be Faber and Sapiens, Homo must first be loquax, the loquacious one. Without language we should merely be hairless chimpanzees. Indeed we should be some thing much worse. Possessed of a high IQ but no language, we should be like the Yahoos of Gulliver's Travels. Creatures too clever to be guided by instinct, too self-centered to live in a state of animal grace, and therefore condemned forever, frustrated and malignant, between contented ape-hood and aspiring humanity. It was language that made possible the accumulation of knowledge and the broadcasting of information. It was language that permitted the expression of religious insight, the formulation of ethical ideals, the codification of laws. It was language, in a word, that turned us into human beings and gave birth to civilization. 
2. Read the given passage, then give brief answers to the questions placed at the end in your own words. 
     There is indeed, something inexpressibly pleasing in the annual renovation of the world and the new display of the treasures of nature. The darkness and cold of winter with the naked deformity of every object, on which we turn our eyes, make us rejoice at the succeeding season, as well for what we have escaped, as for what we may enjoy. Every budding flower, which a warm situation brings early to our view, is considered by us a messenger to notify the approach of more joyous days. 
     The spring affords to a mind free from the disturbance of cares or passions almost everything that our present state makes us capable of enjoying. The variegated Verdure of the fields and woods, the succession of grateful ordours, the voice of pleasure pouring out its notes on every side, with the gladness apparently conceived by every animal from the growth of its food and the clemency of the weather, throw over the whole earth an air of gaiety, significantly expressed by smile of nature. (Samuel John Son)
(i) Give the meanings of the underlined expressions in the passage in your own words. 
(ii) How does an early budding flower become a messenger of happy days?
(iii) Who, according to the writer, can make the best of the spring season?
(iv) Why are all animals glad at the approach of spring?
(v) Suggest a title for the passage. 
3. Write a comprehensive note (250-300 words) on ONE of the following subjects. 
(i) The winds are always on the side of the ablest navigator
(ii) Keep your face to the sunshine and you cannot see the shade. 
(iii) In strategy it is important to see distant things close, and take a distant view of close things.
(iv) You will find poetry nowhere unless you bring some with you. 
4. Change the voice of the verb in the following sentences. 
(i) The production of Cash Crops directly affects the economy of an agricultural country. 
(ii) The accelerated car sped past the traffic signal and crashed into a van and killed two men. 
(iii) The students were asked to submit the assignment before the end of the day. 
(iv) The new budget was being discussed. 
(v) The Manager has announced a bonus for all the workers. 
(vi) The police chased the dacoit and finally arrested him. 
(vii) It was difficult to finish the work on time. 
(viii) At last the speech ended and prizes were distributed. 
(ix) She manages her duties, without any help, despite her blindness. 
(x) I appreciate your efforts and hope you will continue in the same fashion. 
5. Change the following sentences from Direct Speech to Indirect Speech. 
(i) "Hurrah!" Said the captain of the team, "we won the match". 
(ii) "Please Sir, take pity on the poor beggar woman", the wretched old woman asked for alms. 
(iii) They say, "Is this the right time to arrive? Aren't you forgetting something?"
(iv) He often says, "I am always willing to help the needy, if I am assured they are really in need."
(v) The master said, "How long will you take in warming my meal?"
(vi) The boy said, "Alas! I could not pass my examination".
(vii) "Come here quickly and work out this problem on the blackboard" said the teacher. 
(viii) "What a lovely evening!" Said Irum. 
(ix) "What is the name of this beautiful building?" asked the visitor. 
(x) He said, "Sit down over here and don't move until I allow you". 
6. Correct the following sentences. 
(i) I shall not come here unless you will not call me. 
(ii) He does not have some devotion for the project you have given him. 
(iii) I went to either of the four hill stations. 
(iv) Who did you meet on your way to school?
(v) You must remember that you are junior than Hamid. 
(vi) Aslam, as well as, his four friends were planning to visit the museum. 
(vii) Where you went in the vacation?
(viii) This is the youngest and most intelligent of my two sons. 
(ix) He is one of those who always succeed. 
(x) I congratulate you for your success. 
7. Make sentences with the given idiomatic phrases so that their meaning become clear. 
(i) Take aback
(ii) Take after
(iii) Take for
(iv) Take ill
(v) Take off
(vi) Take over
(vii) Take to
(viii) Take to task
(ix) Take to one's heels
(x) Take with a grain or pinch of salt
33. YEAR 2003
1. Make a precis of the given passage and give a suitable heading. 
     If then a practical end must be assigned to a University course, I say it is that of training good members of a society. Its art is the art of social life, and its end is fitness for the world. It neither confines its views to particular professions on the one hand, nor creates heroes or inspires genius on the other. Works indeed of genius fall under not art; heroic minds come under no rule: a University is not a birthplace of poets or of immortal authors, of founders of schools, leaders of colonies, or conquerors of nations. It does not promise a generation of Aristotle or Newtons of Napoleons or Washingtons of Raphaels or Shakespeares through such miracles of nature it has before now contained within its precincts. Nor is it content on the other hand with forming the critic or the experimentalist, the economist or the engineer, trough such too it includes within its scope. But a University training is the great ordinary means to a great ordinary end; it aims at raising the intellectual tone of society, at cultivating the public mind, at purifying the national taste, at supplying true principles to poplar aspirations. It is the education which gives a man a clear conscious view of his own opinions and judgments, a truth in developing them, an eloquence in expressing them, and a force in urging them, it teaches him to select things as they are, to go right to the point, to disentangle a skein of though, to detect what is sophistical and to discard what is irrelevant. It prepares him to fill any post with credit, and to master any subject with facility. (John H. Nswman)
2. Read the following passage and answer the questions given at the end in your own words.
     My father was back in work within days of his return home. He had a spell in the shipyard, where the lost of the great Belfast liners, the CANBERRA, was under construction, and then moved to an electronics firm in the east of the city. (These were the days when computers were the size of small houses and were built by sheet metal workers). A short time after he started in this job, one of his colleagues was sacked for taking off time to get married. The workforce went on strike to get the colleague reinstated. The dispute, dubbed the Honeymoon Strike, made the Belfast papers. My mother told me not long ago that she and my father, with four young sons, were hit so hard by that strike, that for years afterwards they were financially speaking, running to stand still. I don't know how the strike ended, but whether or not the colleague got his old job back, he was soon in another, better one. I remember visiting him and his wife when I was still quite young, in their new bungalow in Belfast northern suburbs. I believe they left Belfast soon after the Troubles began.
     My father then was thirty-seven, the age I am today. My Hither and I are father and son, which is to say we are close without knowing very much about one another. We talk about events, rather than emotions. We keep from each other certain of our hopes and fears and doubts. I have never for instance asked my father whether he has dwelt on the direction, his life might have taken if at certain moments he had made certain other choices. Whatever, he found himself, with a million and a half of his fellows, living in what was in all but name a civil war. As a grown up I try often to imagine what it must be like to be faced with such a situation. What, in the previous course of your life, prepares you for arriving, as my father did, at the scene of a bomb blast close to your brother's place of work and seeing what you suppose, from the colour of the hair, to be your brother lying in the road, only to find that you are cradling the remains of a woman? (Glenn Patterson)
(i) From your reading of the passage what do you infer about the nature of the "Troubles" the writer mentions.
(ii) What according to the writer were the working conditions in the Electronics firm where his father worked?
(iii) Why was his father's colleague sacked?
(iv) How does the writer show that as father and son they do not know much about each other?
(v) Explain the underlined words/phrases in the passage:
Made the Belfast papers, Had a spell, Dubbed, Was sacked, Hit hard
3. Write a comprehensive note (250-300) words on ONE of the following. 
(i) Lots of people confuse bad management with density
(ii) If a window of opportunity appears don't pull down the shade
(iii) We are all inclined to judge ourselves by our ideals: others by their act
(iv) Goodwill is earned by many acts: it can be lost by one.
4. Change the voice of the verb in the following sentences.
(i) The assassins shot the leader in broad daylight.
(ii) The President inaugurated the Motorway recently.
(iii) Will you negotiate the matter with the opposition?
(iv) Why should I be suspected by you?
(v) The establishment is pleased with your performance.
(vi) The parliament members gave a hard time to the prime minister.
(vii) The prisoners in Cuba are being treated cruelly by the so-called Human Rights custodians.
(viii) The present Government is serving the people honestly.
(ix) Who did this?
(x) The Palestinians are avenging the death of their leaders.
5. Change the following to reported speech. 
(i) "This is your house, ins't it?" asked Jemmie.
(ii) "Where do you want to be dropped?" said the taxi driver.
(iii) "Call the first witness", said the judge.
(iv) "Don't blame him for the accident", the boy's mother said.
(v) He said, " I banged on Cliffs door but he din not answer".
(vi) "Where is the boat? Hurry up we are being chased". she cried.
(vii) "I have lost my way. Can you direct me to the Post Office please?" said the old lady.
(viii) He said to me, "What a pity you missed such and important meeting".
(ix) "How wonderful! Why didn't you suggest this plan earlier?"
(x) He said, "Let's wait till the road gets cleared".
6. Correct the following sentences. 
(i) The hostel provides boarding and lodging to students.
(ii) My cousin-brother will come to meet me.
(iii) He lives backside of my house.
(iv) You have read it. Isn't it?
(v) We discussed about this question.
(vi) I am studying in an University for an year.
(vii) Neither he nor I are at fault.
(viii) The committee have issued a notice.
(ix) One must boast of his great qualities.
(x) It is one of the best speeches that has ever been made in the General Assembly.
7. Use the following in your own sentences to bring out their meaning. 
(i) Kick the bucket
(ii) Bolt from the blue
(iii) Put your foot down
(iv) Worth your salt
(v) Down the drain
(vi) All cars
(vii) Swan song
(viii) Cheek by Jowl
(ix) In a nutshell
(x) Give me five
34. YEAR 2004
1. Make a precis of the given passage and suggest a suitable heading. 
     We're dealing with a very dramatic and very fundamental paradigm shift here, You may try to lubricate your social interactions with personality techniques and skills, but in the process, you may truncate the vital character base. You can't have the fruits without the roots. It's the principle of sequencing: Private victory precedes Public Victory. Self-mastery and self-discipline are the foundation of good relationship with others. Some people say that you have to like yourself before you can like others. I think that idea has merit but if you don't know yourself, if you don't control yourself, if you don't have mastery over yourself, it's very hard to like yourself, except in some short-term, psych-up, superficial way. Real self-respect comes form dominion over self from true independence. Independence is an achievement. Inter dependence is a choice only independent people can make. Unless we are willing to achieve real independence, it's foolish to try to develop human relations skills. We might try. We might even have some degree of success when the sun is shinning. But when the difficult times come - and they will - We won't have the foundation to keep things together. The most important ingredient we put into any relationship is not what we say or what we do, but what we are. And if our words and our actions come form superficial human relations techniques (the Personality Ethic) rather than from our own inner core (the Character Ethic), others will sense that duplicity. We simply won't be able to create and sustain the foundation necessary for effective interdependence. The techniques and skill that really make a difference in human interaction are the ones that almost naturally flow from a truly independent character. So the place to begin building any relationship is inside ourselves, inside our Circle of Influence, our own character. As we become independent - Proactive, centered in correct principles, value drive and able to organize and execute around the priorities in our life with integrity - we then can choose to become interdependent - capable of building rich, enduring, highly productive relationships with other people. 
2. Read the following passage and answer the questions given at the end in your own words. 
     We look before and after, wrote Shelley, and pine for what is not. It is said that this is what distinguishes us from the animals and they they, unlike us, live always for and in the movement and have neither hopes nor regrets. Whether ti is so or not I do not know yet it is undoubtedly one of our distinguishing mental attributes: we are actually conscious of our life in time and not merely of our life at the moment of experiencing it. And as a result we find many ground for melancholy and foreboding. Some of us prostrate ourselves on the road way in  Trafalgar Square or in front of the American Embassy because we are fearful that our lives, or more disinterestedly those of our descendants will be cut short by nuclear war. If only as squirrels or butterflies are supposed to do, we could let the future look after itself and be content to enjoy the pleasures of the morning breakfast, the brick walk to the office through autumnal mist or winter fog, the mid-day sunshine that sometimes floods through windows, the warm, peaceful winter evenings by the fireside at home. Yet all occasions for the contentment are so often spoiled for us, to a greater of lesser degree by our individual temperaments, by this strange human capacity for foreboding and regret - regret of things which we cannot undo and foreboding for things which may never happen at all. Indeed were it not for the fact that over breaking through our human obsessions with the tragedy of time, so enabling us to enjoy at any rate some fleeting moments untroubled by vain yearning or apprehension, our life would not be intolerable at all. As it is, we contrive, everyone of us, to spoil it to a remarkable degree. 
(i) What is the difference between our life and the life of an animal?
(ii) What is the result of human anxiety?
(iii) How does the writer compare man to the butterflies and squirrels?
(iv) How does anxiety about future disturb our daily life?
(v) How can we make our life tolerable?
(vi) Explain the underlined words/phrases in the passage. 
3. Write a comprehensive note (250-300 words) on ONE of the following. 
(i) One may smile and smile, and be a villain
(ii) Gather ye rosebuds while ye may. 
(iii) No sensible man ever made an apology
(iv) Our thoughts are ours, their ends none of our own
4. (a) Choose the world that is nearly similar in meaning to the world in capital letters. 
(i) ARCHIPELAGO: (reef, glacier, cluster of islands, lagoon)
(ii) PIAZZA: (cheese dish, veranda, public square, style or dash)
(iii) BAKLAVA: (stringed instrument, dessert, whining dance, gratuity)
(iv) IONIC: (Indian stone monument, Greek architecture, Roman sculpture, Mediterranean Sea)
(v) CICERONE: (teacher, literary classic, chaperone, guide)
(b) Pick the one most nearly opposite in meaning to the capitalized word. 
(i) DESICCATE: (lengthen, hallow, exonerate, saturate, anesthetize)
(ii) APOTHEOSIS: (departure from tradition, impatience with stupidity, demotion from glory, surrender to impulse, cause for grief)
(iii) SPUNK: (success, timidity, growing awareness, loss of prestige, lack of intelligence)
(iv) CAVIL: (discern, disclose, introduce, flatter, commend)
(v) RAUCOUS: (orderly, absorbent, buoyant, mellifluous, contentious)
5. (a) Change the Voice of any FIVE of the following sentences. 
(i) International Humanitarian Law forbids actions leading to unnecessary death and suffering.
(ii) Why should I antagonize you?
(iii) Let Manchoo be told about the jokes of Mulla Nasiruddin.
(iv) Why have the roads not been constructed by the government in this part of the country?
(v) Do not kill your ability by roaming in the streets.
(vi) Your cousin is drawing a large sum of money from his account.
(vii) Build your house when cement is cheap.
(b) Correct any FIVE of the following sentences.
(i) Passing through ten different cities, Karachi is the most active.
(ii) He was laid up for six week with two broken ribs.
(iii) Someone showed the visitors in the room.
(iv) Until you remain idle you will make no progress.
(v) It is very wrong to be devoted to lying and cheating.
(vi) He told me that he is waiting for me since a long time.
(vii) The house stood up in the dull street because of its red door.
(viii) He brought the articles to the market which he wanted to sell.
6. (a) Use any FIVE of the following in your own sentences to bring out their meaning. 
(i)  To bring grist to the mill
(ii) Set one's cap at
(iii) To draw the long bow
(iv) To send a person to Coventry
(v) Beer and skittles
(vi) The acid test
(vii) A skeleton in the cupboard
(viii) To discover a mare's nest
(b) Use FIVE of the following pairs of words in your own sentences so as to bring out their meanings.
(i) Auger, Augur
(ii) Fain, Feign
(iii) Emigrate, Immigrate
(iv) Envy, Jealousy
(v) Invade, Attack
(vi) Trifling, Trivial
(vii) Simulation, Dissimulation
(viii) Venal, Venial
35. YEAR 2005
1. Make a precis of the given passage and suggest a suitable heading. 
     Basically, psychoses and neuroses represent man's inability to maintain a balanced or equated polarity in conducting his life. The ego becomes exclusively or decidedly one sided. In psychoses there is a complete collapse of the ego back into the inner recesses of the personal and collective unconsciouses. When he is repressed toward fulfilling some life goal and where he is further unable to sublimate himself toward another goal, man regresses into goal structures not actually acceptable to himself or to the society. Strong emotional sickness of the psychotic type is like having the shadow run wild. The entire psyche regresses to archaic, animal forms of behaviors. In less severe forms of emotional sickness there may be an accentuated and overpowering use of one of the four mental functions at the expense of the other three. Either taking, feeling, intuiting or seeing may assume such a superior role as to render the other three inoperative. The persona may become so dominant as to create a totally one-sided ego, as in some forms of neurotic behavior. All in all, whatever the type of severity of the emotional disorder, it can be taken as a failure of the psyche to maintain a proper balance between the polarities of life. Essentially, psychoses and neuroses are an alienation of the self from its true goal of self actualization. In this sense the culture is of no consequence. Emotional disorder is not a question being out of tune with one's culture so much as it is of being out of tune with one's self. Consequently, neurosis is more than bizarre behavior, especially as it may be interpreted by contemporaries in the culture. This interpretation avoids the sociological question of what is a mental disorder, since form of behavior which is acceptable on one culture may be considered neurotic in other culture. To Jung, the deviation from cultural norms is not the point. The inability to balance out personal polarities is. 
2. Here is an excerpt from the autobiography of a short story writer. Read it carefully and answer the questions that follow. 
     My father loved all instruments that would instruct and fascinate. His place to keep things was the drawer in the 'library table' where lying on the top of his folder map was a telescope with brass extensions, to find the moon and the Big Dripper after supper in our front yard, and to keep appointments with eclipses. In the back of the drawer you could find a magnifying glass, a kaleidoscope and a gyroscope kept in black buckram box, which he would sent dancing for us on a string pulled tight. He had also supplied himself with an assortment of puzzles composed of metal rings and intersecting links and keys chained together, impossible for the rest of us, however, patiently shown, to take apart, he had an almost childlike love of the ingenious. In time, a barometer was added to our dinning room wall, but we didn't really need it. My father had the country boy's accurate knowledge of the weather and its skies. He went out and stood on our front steps first thing in the morning and took a good look at it and a sniff. He was a pretty good weather prophet. He told us children what to do if we were lost in a strange country. 'Look for where the sky is brightest along the horizon', he said. 'The reflects the nearest river. Strike out for a rive and you will find habitation.' Eventualities were much on his mind. In his care for us children he cautioned us to take measures against such things as being struck by lightening. He drew us all way from the windows during the severe electrical storms that are common where we live. My mother stood apart, scoffing at caution as a character failing. So I developed a strong meteorological sensibility. In years ahead when I wrote stories, atmosphere took its influential role from the start. Commotion in the weather and the inner feelings aroused by such a hovering disturbance emerged connected in dramatic form. 
(i) Why did the writer's father spend time studying the skies?
(ii) Why does the writer think that there was not need of a barometer?
(iii) What does the bright horizon meant for the writer's father?
(iv) How did her father influence the writer in her later years?
(v) Explain the underlines words and phrases in the passage. 
3. Write a comprehensive note (250-300) on any ONE of the following. 
(i) Each man is the architect of his own density
(ii) Ignorance is bliss, knowledge worry
(iii) Democracy fosters mediocrity
(iv) They know enough who know how to learn
4. (a) Choose the word that is nearly similar in meaning to the world in capital letters. 
(i) ANATHEMA: (curse, cure, anemia, asthma)
(ii) TORPOR: (fever, lethargy, taciturn, torrid)
(iii) TOUCHSTONE: (criterion, gold, character, characteristics)
(iv) SEQUESTER: (eliminate, finalize, sedate, isolate)
(v) DENOUEMENT: (denunciation, dormancy, termination, explanation)
(b) Pick the most nearly opposite in meaning to the capitalized letters.
(i) DELETERIOUS: (nourishing, injurious, vital, fatal)
(ii) VALEDICTORY: (farewell, final, hopeful, parting)
(iii) SEDENTARY: (afraid, loyal, active, torpid)
(iv) TURBID: (muddy, clear, invariable, improbable)
(v) PHLEGMATIC: (dull, active, lymphatic, frigid)
5. (a) Change the narration from direct to indirect or indirect to direct speech (do any five)
(i) Our sociology professor said, "I expect you to be in class every day. Unexcused absences may affect your grades".
(ii) My father often told me, "Every obstacle is steppingstone to success. You should view problems in your life as opportunities to improve yourself".
(iii) When Tom asked Jack whey he couldn't go to the game, Jack said he didn't have enough money for a ticket. 
(iv) When I asked the ticket seller if the concert was going to be rescheduled, she told me that she didn't know and said that she just worker there. 
(v) Ali said, "I must go to Lahore next week to visit my ailing mother".
(vi) The policeman told the pedestrian, "You mustn't cross the road against the red light".
(vii) Ahmed asked if what I said was really true. 
(viii) Sarah wanted to know where they would be tomorrow around three O'clock. 
(b) Make corrections in any FIVE of the following where necessary. 
(i) What does a patient tell a doctor it is confidential?
(ii) It is a fact that I almost drowned makes me very careful about water safety whenever I go swimming. 
(iii) Did they not consider this as quiet convincing. 
(iv) St Peter's at Rome is the largest of all other churches. 
(v) The amount they receive in wages is greater than twenty years ago. 
(vi) They succeeded with hardly making any effort. 
(vii) Whatever have you done!
(viii) The officers were given places according to their respective ranks. 
6. (a) Use any FIVE of the following in your own sentences to bring out their meaning. 
(i) Keep ones nose to the grindstone
(ii) Throw someone for a loop
(iii) Letter perfect
(iv) Off the wall
(v) Out to lunch
(vi) Salt something away
(vii) Take someone to the cleaners
(viii) Wear the pants in the family
(b) Use any FIVE of the following pairs of words in your own sentences so as to bring out their meanings. 
(i) Council, Counsel
(ii) Distinct, Distinctive
(iii) Apposite, Opposite
(iv) Deprecate, Depreciate
(v) Punctual, Punctilious
(vi) Judicial, Judicious
(vii) Salutary, Salubrious
(viii) Canvas, Canvass
36. YEAR 2006
1. Make a precis of the given passage and suggest a suitable heading.
     It was not so in Greece, where philosophers professed less, and undertook more. Parmenides pondered nebulously over the mystery of knowledge; but the pre-Socratic kept their eyes with fair consistency upon the firm earth, and sought to ferret out its secrets by observation and experience, rather than to create it by exuding dialectic; there were not many introverts among the Greeks. Picture Democritus, the Laughing Philosopher; would he not be perilous company for the desiccated scholastic who have made the dispute about the reality of the external world take the place of medieval discourses on the number of angles that could sit on the point of a pin? Picture Thales, who met the challenge that philosophers were numskulls by "cornering the market" and making a fortune in a year. Picture Anaxagoras, who did the work of Darwin for the Greeks and turned Pericles form a wire-pulling politician into a thinker and a statesman. Picture old Socrates, unafraid of the sun or the stars, gaily corrupting young men and overturning governments; what would he have done to these bespectacled seedless philosophasters who now litter the court of the once great Queen? To Plato, as to these virile predecessors, epistemology was but the vestibule of philosophy, akin to the preliminaries of love; ti was pleasant enough to a while, but it was far from the creative consummation that drew wisdom's lover on. Here and there in the shorter dialogues, the Master dallied amorously with the problems of perception, thought, and knowledge; but in his more spacious moments he spread his vision over larger fields, but himself ideal states and brooded over the nature and destiny of man. And finally in Aristotle philosophy was honoured in all her boundless scope and majesty; all her mansion were explored and made beautiful with order; here every problem found a place and every science brought its toll to wisdom. These men knew that the function of philosophy was not to bury herself in the obscure retreats of epistemology, but to come forth bravely into every realm of inquiry, and gather up all knowledge for the coordination and illumination of human character and human life. 
2. Read the passage and answer the questions that follow. 
     "Elegant economy!" How naturally one fold back into the phraseology of Cranford! There economy was always "elegant", and money-spending always "vulgar and ostentatious"; a sort of sour grapeism which made up every peaceful and satisfied I shall never forget the dismay felt when certain Captain Brown came to live at Cranford, and openly spoke of his being poor -- not in a whisper to an intimate friend, the doors and windows being previously closed, but in the public street in a loud military voice alleging his poverty as a reason for not taking a particular house. The ladies of Cranford were already moving over the invasion of their territories by a man and a gentleman. He was a half-pay captain, and had obtained some situation on a neighbouring rail-road, which had been vehemently petitioned against by the little town; and if in addition to his masculine gender, and his connection with the obnoxious railroad, he was so brazen as to talk of his being poor - why, then indeed, he must be sent to Coventry. Death was a true and as common as poverty; yet people never spoke about that loud on the streets. It was a word not to be mentioned to ears polite. We had tacitly agreed to ignore that any with whom we associated on terms of visiting equality could ever be prevented by poverty from doing anything they wished. If we walked to or from a party, it was because the weather was so fine, or the air so refreshing, not because sedan chairs were expensive. If we wore prints instead of summer silks, it was because we preferred a washing material; and so on, till we blinded ourselves to the vulgar fact that we were, all of us, people of very moderate means.
(i) Give in thirty of your own words what we learn from this passage of Captain Brown.
(ii) Why did the ladies of Cranford dislike the Captain.
(iii) What reasons were given by the ladies of Cranford for "not doing anything that they wished"?
(iv) "Ears Polite". How do you justify this construction?
(v) What is the meaning and implication of the phrases?
Sour-grapeism, The invasion of their territories, Sent to Coventry, Tacitly agreed, Elegant economy
3. Write a comprehensive note (250-300 words) on any ONE of the following. 
(i) Where ignorance is bliss, it is folly to be wise
(ii) A pen becomes a clarion
(iii) Charms strike the sight but merit wins the soul
(iv) What fools these mortals be!
(v) Stolen glances, sweeter for the theft.
4. (a) Choose the word that is nearly similar in meaning to the world in capital letters. 
(i) FINICKY: (unstable, troubled, fussy, unpleasant)
(ii) SAMIZDAT: (underground press, secret police, twirling jig, large metal tea urn)
(iii) VELD: (arctic wasteland, European plains, South African grassland, deep valley)
(iv) CAJUN: (French-Canadian descendant, American Indian, Native of the Everglades, early inhabitant of the Bahama Islands)
(v) LOGGIA: (pathway, marsh, gallery, carriage)
(b) Pick the most nearly opposite in meaning to the capitalized word. 
(i) CAPTIOUS: (tolerant, capable, winning, recollected)
(ii) PENCHANT: (dislike, attitude, imminence, distance)
(iii) PUTATIVE: (powerful, colonial, undisputed, unremarkable)
(iv) FACSIMILE: (imitation, model, mutation, pattern)
(v) LARCENY: (appropriation, peculation, purloining, indemnification)
5. (a) Change the narration from direct to indirect and from indirect to direct speech. (only five)
(i) He said, "Let it rain ever so hard I shall go out".
(ii) The mother said to the young girl, "Do you know where Salim is?"
(iii) The officer said, "Hand it all! Can you not do it more neatly?"
(iv) Invoking our help with a loud voice she asked us whether we would come to her aid.
(v) He exclaimed with an oath that no one could have expected such a turn of events.
(vi) The teacher said to his students, "Why did to come so late?"
(vii) They applauded him saying that he had done well.
(viii) "You say", said the judge, "the bag you lost contained one hundred and ten pounds?"
(b) Correct only FIVE of the following. 
(i) Playing a game regularly is better than to read books always.
(ii) A good reader must be hardworking and possess intelligence.
(iii) I noticed Akbar was carrying a bag in his hand.
(iv) Having entered his house, the door was shut at once.
(v) He thinks that his writing is better than his friend.
(vi) He is such a man who is liked by everyone.
(vii) I sent a verbal message to my friend.
(viii) He has visited as many historical places as one has or can visit.
Q.6. (a) Use only FIVE of the following in sentences to bring out their meaning. 
(i) Twiddle with
(ii) Vamp up
(iii) Whittle away
(iv) Winkle out
(v) Give someone the burn's rush
(vi) Loom large
(vii) Besetting sin
(viii) To hang fire
(b) Use only FIVE pairs of words in sentences.
(i) Veracity, Voracity
(ii) Persecute, Prosecute
(iii) Moat, Mote
(iv) Loath, Loathe
(v) Ingenious, Ingenuous
(vi) Fair, Feign
(vii) Emigrant, Immigrant
(viii) Wreak, Wreck
37. YEAR 2007
1. Make a precis of the given passage and suggest a suitable heading. 
     The author of a work of imagination is trying to effect us wholly, as human beings, whether he knows it or not; and we are affected by it, as human beings, whether we intend to be or not. I suppose that everything we eat has some effect upon us than merely the pleasure of taste and mastication; it affects us during the process of assimilation and digestion; and I believe that exactly the same ti true of any thing we read. 
     The fact that what we read does not concern merely something called our literary taste, but that if affects directly, though only amongst many other influences, the whole of what we are, is best elicited, I think, by a conscientious examination of the history of our individual literary education. Consider the adolescent reading of any person with some literary sensibility. Everyone, I believe, who is at all sensible to the seductions of poetry, can remember some moment in youth when he or she was completely carried away by the work of one poet. Very likely he was carried away by several poets, one after the other. The reason for this passing infatuation is not merely that our sensibility to poetry is keener in adolescence than in maturity. What happens is a kind of inundation, or invasion of the undeveloped personality, the empty (swept and garnished) room, by the stronger personality of the poet. The same thing may happen at a later age to persons who have not done much reading. One author takes complete possession of us for a time; then another, and finally they begin to affect each other in our mind. We weigh one against another; we see that each has qualities absent from others, and qualities incompatible with the qualities of others: we begin to be, in fact, critical: and it is our growing critical power which protects us from excessive possession by anyone literary personality. The good critic and we should all try to critics, and not leave criticism to the fellows who write reviews in the papers - is the man who, to a keen and abiding sensibility, joins wide and increasingly discriminating. Wide reading is not valuable as a kind of hoarding, and the accumulation of knowledge or what sometimes is meant by the term 'a well-stocked mind'. It is valuable because in the process of being affected by one powerful personality after another, we cease  to be dominated by anyone, or by any small number. The very different views of life, cohabiting in our minds, affect each other, and our own personality asserts itself and gives each a place in some arrangement peculiar to our self. 
2. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow. 
     Strong section of industrialists who still imagine that men can be mere machines and are at their best machines if they are mere machines already menacing what they call "useless education". They deride the classics, and they are mildly contemptuous of history, philosophy, and English.  They want our educational institutions, from the oldest universities to the youngest elementary schools, to concentrate on business or the things that are patently useful in business. Technical instruction is to be provided for adolescent artisans; book keeping and shorthand for prospective clerks; and the cleverest we are to set to "business methods", to modern languages (which can be used in correspondence with foreign firms), and to science (which can be applied to industry). French and German are the languages, not of Montaigne and Goethe, but of Schmidt  Brothers, of Elberfeld and Dupont et Cie, of Lyons. Chemistry and Physics are not explorations into the physical constitution of the universe, but sources of new dyes, new electric light filaments, new means of making things which can be sold cheap and fast to the Nigerian and the Chinese. For Latin there is a Limited field so long as the druggists insist on retaining in their prescriptions. Greek has no apparent use at all, unless it be as a source of syllables for the hybrid names of patent medicines and metal polishes. The soul of man, the spiritual basis of civilization. What gibberish is that?
(i) What kind of education does the writer deal with?
(ii) What kind of education does the writer favour? How do you know?
(iii) Where does the writer express most bitterly his feelings about the neglect of the classics?
(iv) Explain as carefully as you can the full significance of the last sentence.
(v) Explain the underlined words and phrases in the passage.
3. Write a note (250-300 words on any ONE of the following. 
(i) Honesty is the best policy but advertising also helps.
(ii) It is hard for an empty bag to stand upright
(iii) A suspicious parent makes an artful child.
(iv) Spontaneity and creativity as symbols of freedom
(v) Means justify ends
Q.4. (a) Choose synonyms (only five)
(i) LACUNAE: (tiny marine life, shallow water, local dialect, missing parts)
(ii) PAROXYSM: (moral lesson, sudden outburst, contradiction, pallid imitation)
(iii) GROTTO: (statue, cavern, neighbourhood, type of moth)
(iv) FETTER: (rot, to restrain, make better, enable to fly)
(v) STOICISM: (indifference, boldness, deep affection)
(vi) SUCCULENT: (edible, parched, generous, mature)
(vii) MALEDICTION: (compliment, summary, perfume, awkwardness)
(b) Pick the most nearly opposite in meaning to the capitalized words. 
(i) TWINE: (straighten, continue, unravel, detach)
(ii) FRUGAL: (prodigal, intemperate, extravagant, profuse)
(iii) GAWKY: (neat, handy, graceful, handsome)
(iv) CAPRICIOUS: (firm, decided, inflexible, constant)
(v) CONGEAL: (liquefy, mollify, harden, solidify)
5. (a) Change the narration from direct to indirect or indirect to direct speech. (do any five)
(i) "This world, "he declared" is full of sorrow. Would that I were dead!"
(ii) He said to me, "Come early; we shall be waiting for you".
(iii) "How delighted I am, "said he, "to meet my friends here by my own fireside!"
(iv) The man said that he was quite sure she should succeed.
(v) John exclaimed with a sigh that he was ruined.
(vi) The constable inquired of the man where he was going.
(vii) The boy said that he would walk.
(viii) "What losses, "cried he, "have I suffered? What anguish have I endured!"
(b) Correct only FIVE in the following. 
(i) Either of these three umbrellas will suit me.
(ii) Shall you not take my word in this matter?
(iii) This poor man was suffering much for a long time past.
(iv) If he had not died, he would grow up to be a murderer.
(v) Neither he nor I are in the wrong.
(vi) It is high time they mend this road.
(vii) I heard him went down the stairs.
(viii) Paper is made of wood.
6. (a) Use any FIVE of the following in sentences which illustrate their meaning. 
(i) To put the lid on
(ii) Flavour of the mouth
(iii) Zero hours
(iv) Gloom and doom
(v) To pig out
(vi) Bag people
(vii) Compassion fatigue
(viii) No to mice matters
(b) Use only FIVE of the following pairs of words in sentences which illustrate their meaning. 
(i) Affluence, Effluence
(ii) Wretch, Retch
(iii) Euphemistic, Euphuistic
(iv) Amoral, Immoral
(v) Imperial, Imperious
(vi) Degrade, Denigrate
(vii) Temporal, Temporary
(viii) Precipitate, Precipitous
38. YEAR 2008
1. Write a precis of the following passage in about 100 words and suggest the title. 
     Objective pursued by, organizations should be directed to the satisfaction of demands resulting from the wants of mankind. Therefore, the determination of appropriate objective for organized activity must be preceded by an effort to determine precisely what their wants are. Industrial organizations conduct market studies to learn what consumer goods should be produced. City Commissions make surveys to ascertain what civic projects would be of most benefit. Highway Commissions conduct traffic counts to learn what constructive programmes should be undertaken, Organizations come into being as a means for creating and exchanging utility. Their success is dependent upon the appropriateness of the series of acts contributed to the system. The majority of these acts is purposeful, that it, they are directed to the accomplishment of some objectives. These acts are physical in nature and find purposeful employment in the alteration of the physical environment. As a result utility is created, which, through the process of distribution, makes it possible for the cooperative system to endure.
     Before the industrial Revolution most cooperative activity was accomplished in small owner managed enterprises, usually with a single decision maker and simple organizational objectives. Increased technology and the growth of industrial organization made necessary the establishment of a hierarchy of objectives. This in turn, required a division of the management function until today a hierarchy of decision makers exists in most organizations.
     The effective pursuit of appropriate objectives contributes directly to the organizational efficiency. As used there, efficiency is a measure of the want satisfying power of the cooperative system as a whole. Thus efficiency is the summation of utilities received from the organization divided by the utilities given to the organization, as subjectively evaluated by each contributor.
     The functions of the management process is the delineation of organizational objectives and the coordination of activity towards the accomplishment of these objectives. The system of coordinated activities must be maintained so that each contributor, including the manager, gains more than he contributes.
2. Read the following passage carefully and answer all the questions give at the end. 
     These phenomena, however, are merely premonitions of a coming storm, which is likely to sweep over the whole of India and the rest of Asia. This the the inevitable outcome of a wholly political civilization, which has looked upon man as a thing to be exploited and not as a personality to be developed and enlarged by purely cultural forces. The people are Asia are bound to rise against the acquisitive economy which the West have developed and imposed on the nations of the East. Asia cannot comprehend modern Western capitalism with its undisciplined individualism. The faith, which you represent, recognizes the worth of the individual, and disciplines him to give away all the service of God and man. Its possibilities are not yet exhausted. It can still create a new world where the social rank of man is not determined by his caste or colour or the amount of dividend he earns, but by the kind of life he lives, where the poor tax the rich, where human society is founded not on the equality of stomachs but on the equality of spirits, where an untouchable can marry the daughter of the king, where private ownership is a trust and where capital cannot be allowed to accumulate so as to dominate that real producer of wealth. This superb idealism of your faith, however, needs emancipation from the medieval fancies of theologians and logists. Spiritually, we are living in a prison house of thoughts and emotions, which during the course of centuries we have woven round ourselves. And be it further said to the shame of us -- men of older generation -- that we have failed to equip the younger generation for the economic, political and even religious crisis the the present age is likely to bring. The while community needs a complete overhauling of its present mentality in order that it may again become capable of feeling the urge of fresh desires and ideals. the Indian Muslim has long ceased to explore the depths of his own inner life. The result is that he as ceased to live in the full glow and colour of life, and is consequently in danger of an unmanly compromise with force, which he is made to think he cannot vanquish in open conflict. He who desires to change an unfavourable environment must undergo a complete transformation of his inner being. God changes not the condition of a people until they themselves take the initiative to change their condition by constantly illuminating the zone of their daily activity in the light of a definite ideal. Nothing can be achieved without a firm faith in the independence of one's own inner life. This faith alone keeps a people's eye fixed on their goal and save them from perpetual vacillation. The lesson that past experiences has brought to you must be taken to heart. Expect noting from any side. Concentrate your whole ego on yourself alone and ripen your clay into real manhood if you wish to see your aspiration realized.
(i) What is the chief characteristic of the modern political civilization?
(ii) What are possibilities of our faith, which can be of advantage to the world?
(iii) What is the chief danger confronting the superb idealism of our faith?
(iv) Why is the Indian Muslim in danger of coming to an unmanly compromise with the force of opposing him?
(v) What is necessary for an achievement?
(vi) Explain the expressions as highlighted/underlined in the passage.
(vii) Suggest an appropriate title to the passage.
3. Write a comprehensive note (250-300 words) on any ONE of the following. 
(i) To rob Peter to pay Paul
(ii) The child is father of the man
(iii) Art lies in concealing art
(iv) Life without a philosophy is like a ship without rudder
(v) A contented mind is a blessing kind.
4. (a) Use any FIVE of the following idioms in sentences to make their meaning clear. 
(i) Blow one's top
(ii) A cock and bull story
(iii) Fine one's feet
(iv) Call it a night
(v) The tp of the iceberg
(vi) Below par
(vii) From pillar to post
(viii) Hang up
(ix) Turn someone in
(x) By and by
(b) Use any FIVE of the following pairs of words in your own sentences to bring out their meanings.
(i) Mitigate, Alleviate
(ii) Persecute, Prosecute
(iii) Popular, Populace
(iv) Compliment, Complement
(v) Excite, Incite
(vi) Voracity, Veracity
(vii) Virtual, Virtuous
(viii) Exceptional, Exceptionable
5. (a) Pick the most nearly similar in meaning to the capitalized word. Do any FIVE. 
(i) MORATORIUM: (large tomb, waiting period, security for debt, funeral house)
(ii) PROLIFIC: (skillful, fruitful, wordy, spread out)
(iii) BI-PARTISAN: (narrow minded, progressive, representing two parties, divided)
(iv) UNEQUIVOCAL: (careless, unmistakable, variable, incomparable)
(v) COVENANT: (prayer, debate, garden, agreement)
(vi) TENTATIVE: (expedient, nominal, provisional, alternative)
(vii) DEMOGRAPHIC: (relating to the, demons, communications, population, study of Government)
(viii) SONAR: (apparatus to detect, locate objects, measure rain, anticipate)
(b) Indicate the meaning of any FIVE of the following. 
(i) Brag
(ii) Antiquarian
(iii) Input
(iv) Prodigal
(v) Bibliophile
(vi) Nostalgia
(vii) Burn one's boats
(viii) Feedback
(ix) Agrarian
6. (a) Correct the following sentences. Do any FIVE. 
(i) Please tell me where is your brother?
(ii) Sajjad as well as Saleem were late.
(iii) He is the most cleverest boy in the class.
(iv) I have met him last month.
(v) Your writing is inferior than him.
(vi) Nothing but novels please him.
(vii) The teacher gave the boy an advice which he refused.
(viii) He brought the articles to the market which he wanted to see.
(b) Change the narration from Direct to Indirect or Indirect to Direct speech. 
(i) He said to his friend, "Let me go home now".
(ii) He will say, "Mother, I will always obey you".
(iii) "Splendid": said father as he read my report.
(iv) He said, "Good morning, can you help me?"
(v) She said, "Brother, why do you tease me?"
(vi) The king said to the queen, "If I die, take care of my people".
(vii) "By God", he said, "I do not know his name".
(viii) You exclaimed with sorrow that you lost your pen. 
39. YEAR 2009

PART - I (MCQ's)
Q. 1. (a) Choose the word that is nearly similar in meaning to the word in capital letters. (Do only FIVE) Extra attempt of any Part of the question will not be considered.
(a) unclear          (ii) doubtful
(a) obnoxious          (b) affable
(a) delude          (b) avoid
(a) honourable          (b) disingenuous
(a) fixed ideas          (b) delusion
(a) innate          (b) moderate
(a) credible          (b) timid
(b) Pick the most nearly opposite in meaning to the capitalized word:
(a) unable     (b) scruffy     (c) suitable     (personable
(a) escape     (b) starvation     (c) doom     (d) rescue
(a) clean     (b) distinct     (c) ambiguous     (d) frugal
(a) porus     (b) charming     (c) horrid     (d) offensive
(a) calm     (b) anger     (c) excite     (d) kindle
Q.2. Make a precis of the given passage and suggest a suitable heading. (20)
     From Plato to Tolstoi art has been accused of exciting our emotions and thus of disturbing the order and harmony of our moral life. "Poetical imagination, according to Plato, waters our experience of lust and anger, of desire and pain, and makes them grow when they ought to starve with drought." Tolstoi sees in art a source of infection. "Not only in infection", he says, "a sign of art, but the degree of infectiousness is also the sole measure of excellence in art." But the flaw in this theory is obvious. Tolstoi suppresses a fundamental moment of art, the moment of form. The aesthetic experience - the experience of contemplation - is a different state of mind from the coolness of our theoretical and the sobriety of our moral judgment. It is filled with the liveliest energies of passion, but the passion itself is here transformed both in its nature and in its meaning. Wordsworth defines poetry as "emotion recollected in tranquility". But the tranquility we feel in great poetry is not that of recollection. The emotions aroused by the poet do not belong to a remote past. They are "here" - alive and immediate. We are aware of their full strength, but this strength tends in a new direction. It is rather seen than immediately felt. Our passions are no longer dark and impenetrable powers; they become, as it were, transparent. Shakespeare never gives us an aesthetic theory. He does not speculate about the nature of art. Yet in the only passage in which he speaks of the character and functions of dramatic art the whole stress is laid upon this point. "The purpose of playing, "as Hamlet explains, "both at the first and now, was and is, to hold as, twere, the mirror up to nature; to show virtue her own feature, scorn her won image, and the very age and body of the time, his form and pressure." But the image of the passion is not the passion itself. The poet who represents a passion does not infect us with this passion. At a Shakespeare play we are not infected with the ambition of Macbeth, with the cruelty of Richard III or with the jealously of Othello. We are not at the mercy of these emotions; we look through them; we seem to penetrate into their very nature and essence. In this respect Shakespeare's theory of dramatic art, if he had such a theory, is a complete agreement with the conception of the fine arts of the great painters and sculptors.
Q.3. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow. (20)
     It is very nature of helicopter that it is great versatility is found. To begin with, the helicopter is the fulfillment of tone of man's earliest and most fantastic dreams. The dream of flying - not just like a bird - but of flying as nothing else flies or has ever flown. To be able to fly straight up and straight down - to fly forward or back or side wise, or to hover over and spot till the fuel supply is exhausted.
     To see how helicopter can do things that are not possible for the conventional fixed-wing plane, let us first examine how a conventional plane "works". It works by its shape - by the shape of its wing, which deflects air when the plane is in motion. That is possible because air has density and resistance. It reacts to force. The wing is curved and set at an angle to catch the air and push it down; the air, resisting, pushing against the under surface of the wing, giving it some of its lift. At the same time the curved upper surface of the wing exerts suction, tending to create a lack of air at the top of the wing. The air, again resisting, sucks back, and this gives the wing about twice as much lift as the air pressure below the wing. This is what takes place when the wing is pulled forward by propellers or pushed forward by jet blasts. Without the motion the wing has no lift. 
(i) Where is the great versatility of the helicopter found?
(ii) What is the dream of flying?
(iii) What does the wing of the conventional aircraft do?
(iv) What does the curved upper surface of the wing do?
(v) What gives the wing twice as much lift?
Q.4. Write a comprehensive note (250-300 words) on any ONE of the following. (20) 
(i) The Importance of Industrialization
(ii) Do We Live Better Than Our Forefathers?
(iii) Protecting Freedom of Expression Not Lies
(iv) Adopting Unchecked Western Life Styles
(v) Variety is the Spice of Life
Q.5. (a) Change the narration from direct to indirect or indirect to direct speech. (Do only FIVE). (5)
Extra attempt of any part of the question will not be considered. 
(i) He said to him, "Why do you waste your time"?
(ii) He ordered his servant not to stand there doing nothing. 
(iii) He exclaimed with joy that he had won the match. 
(iv) The traveler said, "What a dark night?"
(v) He said, "Let it rain even so hard, I will start today."
(vi) My mother said, "My you live happily and prosper in your life."
(vii) He said, "How foolish have I been?"
(b) Correct only FIVE of the following. (5)
(i) He swore from God. 
(ii)  Is your dress different than mine?
(iii) He inquired whether I live in Karachi. 
(iv) He spoke these words upon his face. 
(v) They ran direct to their college. 
(vi) I shall not come here unless you will not call me. 
(vii) They have been building a wall since three days. 
(viii) He does not have some devotion to his studies. 
Q.6. (a) Use any FIVE of the following in sentences which illustrate their meanings. (5)
Extra attempt of any part of the question will not be considered. 
(i) Leave in the lurch
(ii) Hard and fast
(iii) Weather the storm
(iv) Bear the brunt
(v) Meet halfway
(vi) Turn coat
(vii) Where the shoe pinches
(b) Use any FIVE of the following pair of words in sentences which illustrate their meanings. (10)
(i) Persecute, Prosecute
(ii) Luxuriant, Luxurious
(iii) Mean, Mien
(iv) Observation, Observance
(v) Naughty, Knotty
(vi) Ghostly, Ghastly
(vii) Hew, Hue
40. YEAR 2010
PART - I (MCQ's)
Q.1. (a) Pick the word that is nearly similar in meaning to the capitalized word. (5) (Do any FIVE)
(i) ACRIMONIOUS: (bitter, provocative, cheap, volatile)
(ii) CALLIGRAPHY: (computers, handwriting, blood pressure, brain waves)
(iii) UNEQUIVOCAL: (variable, plain, unmistakable, negligent)
(iv) DEMISE: (conclude, end, affection, death)
(v) INCENDIARY: (happy, sneer, causing fire, jolly)
(vi) TOUCHSTONE: (remind, a hall, at rest, criterion)
(vii) VOID: (emptiness, lea, anger, trick)
(viii) ESSAY: (direct, compose, attempt, suppose)
(b) Indicate the most nearly opposite in meaning to the word in capital letters. (Do only FIVE)
(i) IGNOBLE: (lowly, vile, good, noble)
(ii) MELANCHOLY: (sorrowful, happy, forbidden, brisk)
(iii) OBLITERATE: (preserve, destroy, ravage, design)
(iv) ALLY: (alloy, foe, partner, accessory)
(v) VULGAR: (coarse, gross, exquisite, obscene)
(vi) PRETEND: (sham, substantiate, feign, fabricate)
(vii) LIBERTY: (permission, licence, serfdom, bound)
(viii) CONSCIENTIOUS: (uncorrupt, honourable, principled, profligate)
2. Write a precis of the following passage in about 100 words and suggest a suitable title. 
     Of all the characteristics of ordinary human nature envy is the most unfortunate; not only does the envious person wish to inflict misfortune and do so whenever he can with impunity, but he is also himself rendered unhappy by envy. Instead of deriving pleasure from what he has, he derives pain from what others have. If he can, he deprives others of their advantages, which to him is as desirable as ti would be to secure the same advantage himself. If this passion is allowed to run riot it becomes fatal to all excellence, and even to the most useful exercise of exceptional skill. Why should a medical man go to see his patients in a car when the labourer has to walk to his work? Why should the scientific investigator be allowed to spend his time in a warm room when others have to face the inclemency of the elements? Why should a man who possesses some rare talent of great importance to the world be save from the drudgery of his own housework? To such questions envy finds no answer. Fortunately, however, there is in human nature a compensating passion, namely that of admiration. Whoever wishes to increase human happiness must wish to increase admiration and to diminish envy. What cure is there for envy? For the saint there is the cure of selflessness, though even in the case of saints envy of other saints is by no means impossible. But, leaving saints out of account, the only cure for envy in the case of ordinary men and women is happiness, and the difficulty is that envy is itself a terrible obstacle to happiness. But the envious man may say: "What is the good of telling me that the cure for envy is happiness? I cannot find happiness while I continue to feel envy, and you tell me that I cannot cease to be envious until I find happiness". But real life is never so logical as this. Merely to realize the causes of one's own envious feeling is to take a long step towards curing them.
3. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow. 
     And still it moves. The words of Galileo, murmured when the tortures of the Inquisition had driven him to recant the Truth he know, apply in a new way to our world today. Sometimes, in the knowledge of all that has been discovered, all that has been done to make life on the planet happier and more worthy, we may be tempted to settle down to enjoy our heritage. That would, indeed, be the betrayal of our trust. These men and women of the past have given everything - comfort, time, treasure, peace of mind and body, life itself - that we might live as we do. The challenge to each one of use is to carry on their work for the sake of future generations. The adventurous human mind must not falter. Still must we question the old truths and work for the new ones. Still we risk scorn, cynicism, neglect, loneliness, poverty, persecution, if need be. We must shut our ears to the easy voice which tells us that 'human nature will never alter' as an excuse for doing nothing to make life more worthy. Thus will the course of the history of mankind go onward, and the world we know move into a new splendour for those who are yet to be.
(i) What made Galileo recant the Truth he knew?
(ii) What is the heritage being alluded to in the first paragraph?
(iii) What does the 'betrayal of our trust' imply?
(iv) Why do we need to question the old truths and work for the new ones?
(v) Explain the words or expressions as highlighted/underlines in the passage.
4. Write a comprehensive note (250-300 words) on any ONE of the following.
(i) When flatterers get together, the devil goes to dinner
(ii) The impossible if often the untried
(iii) A civil servant is a public servant
(iv) Internet -- a blessing or a bane
(v) Hope is the buoy of life
5. (a) Use only FIVE of the following in sentences which illustrate their meaning. 
(i) Make for
(ii) Yeoman's service
(iii) Discretion in the better part of valour
(iv) A casting vote
(v) Look down upon
(vi) Iconoclast
(vii) Out of the wood
(viii) A swan song
(b) Use only FIVE of the following pairs of words in sentences which illustrate their meaning. 
(i) Adverse, Averse
(ii) Maize, Maze
(iii) Meal, Meddle
(iv) Imperious, Imperial
(v) Veracity, Voracity
(vi) Allusion, Illusion
(vii) Ordnance, Ordinance
(viii) Willing, Wilful
6. (a) Correct only FIVE of the following.
(i) This house is built of bricks and stones.
(ii) The climate of Pakistan is better than England.
(iii) He swore by God.
(iv) You ought to have regarded him your benefactor.
(v) My friend is very ill, I hope he will soon die.
(vi) He is waiting for better and promising opportunity.
(vii) When I shall see her I will deliver her your gift.
(viii) Many a sleepless nights she spent.
(b) Change the narration from direct to indirect or indirect to direct speech. (Do only FIVE)
(i) On Monday he said, "My son is coming today".
(ii) They wanted to know where he was going the following week.
(iii) He said, "Did she go yesterday?"
(iv) "By God", he said, "I do not know her nickname."
(v) He says that were are to meet him at the station.
(vi) He said, "I don't know they way. Ask the old man sitting on the gate".
(vii) My father prayed that I would recover from my illness.
(viii) He said, "How will you manage it?"
41. YEAR 2011
PART - I (MCQ's)
Q.1. (a) Choose the word that is nearly similar in meaning to the word in capital letters. (Do any FIVE)
(i) CHRONICLE: (daily ritual, widely held belief, account of events)
(ii) FLUME: (sea bird with a wing span four times its body length, narrow gorge with a stream running through it, warm summer wind)
(iii) EPITAPH: (editorial, clever head line, tome stone inscription)
(iv) LACONIC: (concise, weekly, circular)
(v) SHINGLE: (gravelly beach, exposed sand bar, group of dolphins)
(vi) FILIAL: (related by marriage, of sons and daughters, of brothers)
(vii) MISOPEDIA: (a hatred for children, middle age, family history)
(viii) MENAGE: (marriage vow, household, golden years)
(b) Choose the word that is nearly most opposite in meaning to the capitalized word. (Do only FIVE). 
(i) ANNIHILATE: (supplement, augment, append, contract)
(ii) BRACE: (prop, knock, invigorate, refresh)
(iii) BRUSQUE: (gruff, curt, smooth, discourteous)
(iv) CONCORD: (amity, accord, variance, unity)
(v) CONSCIENTIOUS: (uncorrupt, honourable, principled, profligate)
(vi) DIPLOMATIC: (sagacious, shrewd, bungling, prudent)
(vii) HYPOCRISY: (uprightness, pretense, cant, deceit)
(viii) ONEROUS: (burdensome, wearing, difficult, fluent)
Q.2. Make a precis of the given passage and suggest a suitable heading. 
     The psychological causes of unhappiness, it is clear, are many and various. But all have something in common. The typical unhappy man is one who having been deprived in youth of some normal satisfaction, has come to value this one kind of satisfaction more than any other, and has, therefore, given to his life a one-sided direction, together with a quite undue emphasis upon the achievement as apposed to the activities connected with it. There is, however, a further development which is very common in the present day. A man may feel so completely thwarted that he seeks no form of satisfaction, but only distraction and oblivion. He then becomes a devotee of "Pleasure". That is to say, he seeks to make life bearable by becoming less alive. Drunkenness, for example, is temporary suicide; that happiness that it brings is merely negative, a momentary cessation of unhappiness. The narcissist and megalomaniac believe that happiness is possible, though they may adopt mistaken means of achieving it; but the man who seeks intoxication, in whatever form, has given up hope except in oblivion. In his case the first thing to be done is to persuade him that happiness is desirable. Men, who are unhappy, like men who sleep badly, are always proud of the fact. Perhaps their pride is like that of the fox who had lost his tail; if so, they way to cure it is to point out to them how they can grow a new tail. Very few men, I believe, will deliberately choose unhappiness if they see a way of being happy. I do not deny that such men exist, but they are not sufficiently numerous to be important. It is common in our day, as it has been in many other periods of the world's history, to suppose that those among us who are wise have seen through all the enthusiasms of earlier times aand have become aware that there is noting left to live for. The man who hold this nature of the universe and consider to be the only rational attitude for an enlightened man. Their pride in their unhappiness makes less sophisticated people suspicious of its genuineness; they think that the man who enjoys being miserable is not miserable.
3. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow. 
     Knowledge is acquired when we succeed in fitting a new experience in the system of concepts based upon our old experiences. Understanding comes when we liberate ourselves from the old and so make possible a direct, unmediated contact with the new, the mystery, moment by moment, of our existence. The new is the given on every level of experience - given perceptions, given emotions and thoughts, given states of unstructured awareness, given relationships with things and persons. The old is our home-made system of ideas and word patterns. It is the stock of finished articles fabricated out of the given mystery by memory and analytical reasoning, by habit and automatic associations of accepted notions. Knowledge is primarily a knowledge of these finished articles. Understanting is primarily direct awareness of the raw material. Knowledge is always in terms of concepts and can be passed on by means of words or other symbols. Understanding is not conceptual and therefore cannot be passed on. It is an immediate experience, and immediate experience can only be talked about (very inadequately), never shared. Nobody can actually feel another's pain or grief, another's love or joy, or hunger. And similarly no body can experience another's understanding of a given event or situation. There can, of course, be knowledge of such an understanding, and this knowledge may be passed on in speech or writing, or by means of other symbols. Such communicable knowledge is useful as a reminder that there have been specific understandings in the past, and understanding is at all times possible. But we must always remember that knowledge of understanding is not the same thing as the understanding which is the raw material of that knowledge. It is as different from understanding as the doctor's prescription for penicillin is different from penicillin.
(i) How is knowledge different from understanding?
(ii) Explain why understanding cannot be passed on.
(iii) Is the knowledge of understanding possible? It it is, how may it be passed on?
(iv) How does the author explain that knowledge of understanding is not the same thing as the understanding?
(v)  How far do you agree with the author in his definitions of knowledge and understanding? Give reason for your answer.
4. Write a comprehensive note (250-300 words) on any ONE of the following. 
(i) Child is the father of man
(ii) Life succeeds in that it seems to fail
(iii) Yellow Journalism
(iv) The violence of war can be diluted with love
(v) Love is a beautiful but baleful god.
5. (a) Use only FIVE of the following sentences which illustrate their meaning.
(i) To eat one's words
(ii) Dog in the manger
(iii) A close shave
(iv) A Freudian slip
(v) A Gordian knot
(vi) A cog in the machine
(vii) A sugar daddy
(viii) A wet blanket
(b) Use only FIVE of the following pairs of words in sentences which illustrate their meaning.
(i) Capital, Capitol
(ii) Assay, Essay
(iii) Envelop, Envelope
(iv) Decree, Degree
(v) Desolate, Dissolute
(vi) Species, Specie
(vii) Tortuous, Torturous
(viii) Wet, Whet
6. (a) Correct only FIVE of the following. 
(i) Please speak to the concerned clerk.
(ii) You have got time to short for that.
(iii) Not only he was a thief, but he was also a murderer.
(iv) They thought that the plan would be succeeded.
(v) It is unlikely that he wins the race.
(vi) My uncle has told me something about it yesterday.
(vii) I hoped that by the time I would have got there it would have stopped raining.
(viii) They prevented the driver to stop.
(b) Change the narration from direct to indirect or indirect to direct speech. 
(i) "I couldn't get into the house because I had lost my key, so I had to break a window", he said.
(ii) "Would you like to see over the house or are your more interested in the garden?" She asked me.
(iii) "Please sent whatever you can spare. All contributions will be acknowledged immediately", said the secretary of the disastrous fund.
(iv) She asked if he'd like to go to be the concert and I said I was sure he would.
(v) I told her to stop making a fuss about nothing and said that she was lucky to have got a seat at all.
(vi) The teacher said, "You must not forget what I told you last lesson. I shall expect you to be able to repeat it next lesson by heart."
(vii) He asked me if he should leave it in the car.
(viii) He said, "May I open the window? It's rather hot in here". 
42. YEAR 2012
PART - I (MCQ's)
Q.1. (a) Choose the word that is nearly similar in meaning to the word in capital letters. 
(i) BREACH: (secret, reinforcement, difficulty, opening)
(ii) GELID: (hot, soft, icy cold, hard)
(iii) OPULENT: (corrupt, poor, proud, luxuriant)
(iv) VERISIMILITUDE: (large number, variety, shades of colours, being true)
(v) IOTA: (agreement, coin, column, small amount)
(b) Choose the word that is nearly most opposite in meaning to the capitalized word.
(vi) DESPISE: (abhor, disdain, demolish, admire)
(vii) LACKEY: (strange, poor, master, ignorant)
(viii) EGRESS: (decline, entrance, rude, angry)
(ix) AMALGAMATE: (punish, study, separate, reduce)
(x) INSIPID: (silly, tasty, active, thin)
(c) Complete the sentences with appropriate words. 
(xi) Knowledge is like a deep well fed by __________ springs, and your mind is a little bucket that you drop in it. (external, perennial, immortal, lovely)
(xii) The unruly behaviour of children __________ their parents. (aggrieved, impeached, incensed, tempered)
(xiii) He suggests that the meeting __________ postponed. (is, be, must, would be)
(xiv) The landscape was truly __________ , so arid that even the Hardest Plant could not survive. (lurid, parched, verdant, variegated)
(xv) His statement was too __________ that everyone was left in doubt. (equitable, innocuous, dogmatic, equivocal)
(xvi) I certainly do not __________ your driving your car over the speed limit. (approve, approve with, approve of, approve for)
(xvii) The Eagle swooped and __________ a sleeping lizard. (carried down, carried up, carried off, carried in)
(xviii) A young officer was __________ the task of taking prisoners to the rear. (charged by, charged in, charged for, charged with)
(xix) It seemed he was going to __________  him but he controlled himself. (lash out at, lash out in, lash out to, lash out on)
(xx) I am not going to __________ this book at any cost. (part from, part up, part for, part with)
Q.2. Write a precis of the following passage and suggest a suitable title. 
     One of the most ominous and discreditable symptoms of the want of candour in present-day sociology is the deliberate neglect of the population question. It is, or should be, transparently, clear that, if the state is resolved, on humanitarian ground, to inhibit the operation of natural selection, some rational regulation of population, both as regards quality and quantity, is imperatively necessary. There is no self-acting adjustment, apart from starvation, of numbers to the means of subsistence. If all natural checks are removed, a population in advance of the optimum number will be produced and maintained at the cost of a reduction in the standard of living. When this pressure begins to be felt, that section of the population which is capable of reflection and which has a standard of living which may be lost will voluntarily restrict its numbers, even to the point of failing to replace death by an equivalent number of new births; while the underworld, which always exists in every civilized society. The failure and misfits and derelicts, moral and physical will exercise no restraint and will be a constantly increasing drain upon the national resources. The population will thus be recruited in a very undue proportion by those strata of society which do not possess the qualities of useful citizens. The importance of the problem would seem to be sufficiently obvious. But politicians know that the subject is unpopular. The urban have no votes. Employers are like surplus of labour, which can be drawn upon when trade is good. Militarists want as much food for powder as they can get. Revolutionists instinctively oppose any real remedy for social evils; they know that every unwanted child is a potential insurgent. All three can appeal to a Quasi-Religious prejudice, resting apparently on the ancient theory of natural rights which are supposed to include the right of unlimited procreation. This objection is now chiefly urged by a celibate or childless priests; but it is held with such fanatical vehemence that the fear of losing the votes which they control is a welcome excuse for the baser sort of politicians to shelve the subject as inopportune. The socialist calculation is probably erroneous; for experience has shown that it is aspiration, not desperation, that makes revolutions.
3. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow. Use your own language. 
     Human Beings feel afraid of death just as children feel afraid of darkness; and just as children's fear of darkness is increased by the stories which they have heard about ghosts and thieves, human beings' fear of death is increased by the stories which they have heard about the agony of the dying man. If a human being regards death as a kind of punishment for the sins he has committed and if he looks upon death as a means of making an entry into another world, he is certainly taking a religious and sacred view of death. But if a human being looks upon death as a law of nature and then feels afraid of it, his attitude is one of cowardice. However, even in religious meditation about death there is something a mixture of folly and superstition. Monks have written books in which they have described the painful experience which they underwent by inflicting physical tortures upon themselves as a form of self-purification. Such books may lead one to think that, if the pain of even a finger being squeezed or pressed in unbearable, the pains of death must be indescribably agonizing. Such books thus increase a Man's fear of death. Seneca, a Roman Philosopher, expressed the view that the circumstances and ceremonies of death frighten people more than death itself would do. A dying man is heard uttering groans; his body is seen undergoing convulsions; his face appears to be absolutely bloodless and pale; at his death his friends begin to weep and his relations put on mourning clothes; various rituals are performed. All these facts make death appear more horrible than it would be otherwise.
(i) What is the difference between human beings' fear of death and children's fear of darkness?
(ii) The is the religious and sacred view of death?
(iii) What are the painful experiences described by the Monks in their books?
(iv) What are the views of Seneca about death?
(v) What are the facts that make death appear more horrible than it would be otherwise?
4. Write a comprehensive note (250-300 words) on any ONE of the following. 
(i) Self done is Well done
(ii) The bough that bears most bend most
(iii) Nearer the Church, farther from God
(iv) Rich men have no fault
(v) Cut your coat according to your cloth
5. Use only FIVE of the following in sentences which illustrate their meaning. 
(i) Wool gathering
(ii) Under the harrow
(iii) Cold comfort
(iv) A gold digger
(v) Walk with God
(vi) One the thin ice
(vii) A queer fish
(viii) Unearthly hour
Q.6. (a) Correct only FIVE of the following.
(i)  A ten-feet long snake made people run here and there.
(ii) We are going to the concert, and so they are.
(iii) Enclosed with this letter was a signed Affidavit and a carbon copy of his request to our main office.
(iv) Fear from God.
(v) Pakistan has and will support the Kashmiris
(vi) He has come yesterday
(vii) Arshad's downfall was due to nothing else than pride
(viii) Do not avoid to consult a doctor.
(b) Change the narration from direct to indirect or indirect to direct speech (Do only FIVE).
(i) He said to us, "You cannot do this problem alone".
(ii) The beggar asked the rich lady if she would not pity the sufferings of an old and miserable man and help him with a rupee or two.
(iii) The commander said to the soldiers, "March on".
(iv) He entreated his master respectfully to pardon him as it was his first fault.
(v) "Do you really come from America? How do you feel in Pakistan?" Said I to the stranger.
(vi) The officer threatened the peon to come in time otherwise he would be turned out.
(vii) People wished that the Quaid-e-Azam had been alive those days to see their fate.
(viii) They said, "Bravo! Imran, what a shot.!
43. YEAR 2013
PART - I (MCQ's)
Q.1. (a) Choose the word that is nearly most similar in meaning to the capitalized word. 
(i) BRISTLE: (regulate, flare up, frail, exhilarate, none of these)
(ii) DELUGE: (immerse, rescue, drown, overflow, none of these)
(iii) TIRADE: (argument, procession, angry speech, torture, none of these)
(iv) QUASI: (secret, improper, seeming, whole, none of these)
(v) VILIFY: (to prove, boast, defraud, defame, none of these)
(vi) RIGMAROLE: (unnecessary, disorder, confused talk, game, none of these)
(vii) DEIGN: (condescend, pretend, disparage, refuse, none of these)
(viii) PROLETARIAT: (trade agreement, government secretariat, labouring class, wealthy class, none of these)
(ix) LUDICROUS: (liberal, fearful, comic, praise worthy, none of these) 
(x) MALEFIC: (baleful, belonging to a male person, social, fighting by nature, none of these)
(b) Choose the word that is nearly most opposite in meaning to the capitalized words. 
(xi) LANGUID: (feeble, dull, vigorous, weak, none of these)
(xii) HIGH-STRUNG: (nervous, tense, costly, calm, none of these)
(xiii) METTLE: (courage, boldness, cowardice, spirit, none of these)
(xiv) ABRIDGMENT: (epitome, dissect, abstract, synopsis, none of these)
(xv) CAJOLE: (flaunt, coax, beguile, flatter, none of these)
(xvi) CELIBACY: (virginity, wedlock, chastity, single, none of these)
(xvii) INCLEMENT: (rough, unpleasant, unfavourable, genial, none of these)
(xviii) IRRESOLUTE: (ineffective, without resolution, yielding, sturdy, none of these)
(xix) ANNEXATION: (supplement, augmentation, appendix, contraction, none of these)
(xx) INCUR: (shun, run, blame, meet, none of these)
Q.2. Make a precis of the following passage and suggest a suitable heading. 
     Culture, in human societies, has two main aspects; an external, formal aspect and an inner, ideological aspect. The external forms of culture, social or artistic, are merely an organized expression of its inner ideological aspect, and both are an inherent component of a given social structure. They are changed or modified when this structure is changed or modified and because of this organic link they also help and influence such changes in their parent organism. Cultural problems, therefore, cannot be studied or understood or solved in isolation from social problems i.e. problems of political and economic relationships. The cultural problems of the underdeveloped countries, therefore, have to be understood and solved in the light of the large perspective, in the context of underlying social problems. Very broadly speaking, these problems are primarily the problems of arrested growth; they originate primarily from long years of imperialist -- Colonialist domination and the remnants of a backward outmoded social structure. This should not require much elaboration European Imperialism caught up with the countries of Asia, Africa or Latin America between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries. Some of them were fairly developed feudal societies with ancient traditions of advanced feudal culture. Others had yet to progress beyond primitive pastoral tribalism. Social and cultural development of them all was frozen at the point of their political subjugation and remained frozen until the coming of political independence. The culture of these ancient feudal societies, in spite of much technical and intellectual excellence, was restricted to a small privileged class and rarely intermingled with the parallel unsophisticated fold culture of the general masses. Primitive tribal culture, in spite of its child like beauty, had little intellectual content. Both feudal and tribal societies living contagiously in the same homelands were constantly engaged in tribal, racial, and religious or other feuds with their tribal and feudal rivals. Colonialist - imperialist domination accentuated this dual fragmentation, the vertical division among different tribal and national groups, the horizontal division among different classes within the same tribal or national group. This is the basic ground structure, social and cultural, bequeathed to the newly liberated countries by their former over lords.
3. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow. Use your own language. 
     The civilization of China - as every one knows, is based upon the teaching of Confucius who flourished five hundred years before Christ. Like the Greeks and Romans, he did not think of human society as naturally progressive; on the contrary, he believed that in remote antiquity rulers had been wise and the people had been happy to a degree which the degenerate present could admire but hardly achieve. This, of course, was a delusion. But the practical result was the Confucius, like other teachers of antiquity, aimed at creating a stable society, maintaining a certain level of excellence, but not always striving after new successes. In this he was more successful than any other man who ever lived. His personality has been stamped on Chinese Civilization from his day to our own. During his life time, the Chinese occupied only a small part of present day China, and were divided into a number of warring states. During the next three hundred years they established themselves throughout what is now China proper, and founded an empire exceeding in territory and population any other that existed until the last fifty years. In spite of barbarian invasions, and occasional longer or shorter periods of Chaos and Civil War, the Confucian system survived bringing with it art and literature and a civilized way of life. A system which has had this extra ordinary power of survival must have great merits, and certainly deserves our respect and consideration. It is not a religion, as we understand the word, because it is not associated with the super natural or with mystical beliefs, It is purely ethical system, but its ethics, unlike those of Christianity, are not too exalted for ordinary men to practise. In essence what Confucius teaches is something is very like the old-fashioned ideal of a 'gentleman' as it existed in the eighteenth century. One of his sayings will illustrate this: "The true gentleman is never contentious .......... he courteously salutes his opponents before taking up his position .......... so that even when competing he remains a true gentleman'.
(i) Why do you think the author calls Confucius' belief about the progress of human society as a delusion?
(ii) How did Confucius' though affect China to develop into a stable and 'Proper' China?
(iii) Why does the author think that Confucian system deserves respect and admiration?
(iv) Why does the author call Confucian system a purely ethical system and not a religion?
(v) Briefly argue whether you agree or disagree to Confucius' ideal of a gentleman.
Q.4. Write a comprehensive note (250-300 words) on any ONE of the following.
(i) Revolution versus Evolution
(ii) Let us agree to disagree in an agree-able way.
(iii) Say not the struggle not availeth
(iv) Beneath every cloud there is always a silver lining
(v) Is democracy an ideal form of government?
Q.5. (a) Use only FOUR of the following in sentences which illustrate their meaning.
(i) The milk of human kindness
(ii) A rule of thumb
(iii) Out and out
(iv) To wash one's dirty linen in public
(v) To pay through the nose
(vi) To lose face
(b) Use only FOUR of the following pairs of words in sentences which illustrate their meanings. 
(i) Adjoin, Adjourn
(ii) Allay, Ally
(iii) Bases, Basis
(iv) Click, Clique
(v) Distract, Detract
(vi) Liable, Libel
Q.6. (a) Correct only FIVE of the following. 
(i) My boss agreed with my plan.
(ii) If he were here, he would be as wise as he was during the war.
(iii) We have amusements in form of music.
(iv) You get hungry for all the work you have to do.
(v) We were glad for being there.
(vi) I prefer the fifth act of Shakespeare King Lear the best of all.
(vii) After finishing my lecture, the bell rang.
(viii) We needed not to be afraid.
(b) Change the narration from direct to indirect or indirect to direct speech. (Do only FIVE).
(i) "If I had spoken to my father as you speak to me he'd have beaten me", he said to me.
(ii) "How far is it?" I said, "and how long will it take me to get there?"
(iii) "Do you know any body in this area or could you get a reference from your landlady?", he asked me.
(iv) She told me to look where I was going as the road was full of holes and very badly lit.
(v) He wanted to know if I was going to the concert and suggested that we should make up a party and go together.
(vi) He said, "I mustn't mind if the first one wasn't any good".
(vii) "What a nuisance! Now I'll have to do it all over again", he exclaimed.
(viii) "I must go to the dentist tomorrow", he said, "I have an appointment". 
44. YEAR 2014
PART - I (MCQ's)
Q.1. (a)

Q.2. Write a precis of the following passage and suggest a suitable heading to it. 
     Probably the only protection for contemporary man is to discover how to use his intelligence in the service of love and kindness. The training of human intelligence must include the simultaneous development of the emphatic capacity. Only in this way can intelligence be made an instrument of social morality and responsibility -- and thereby increase the chances of survival. 
     The need to produce human beings with trained morally sensitive intelligence is essentially a challenge to educators and educational institutions. Traditionally, the realm of social morality was left to religion and the churches as guardians or custodians. But their failure to fulfill this responsibility and their yielding to the seductive lures of the men of wealth and pomp and power documented by the history of the last two thousand years and have now resulted in the irrelevant "God is Dead" theological rhetoric. The more pragmatic men of power have had no time or inclination to death with the fundamental problems of social morality. For them simplistic Machiavellianism must remain the guiding principle of their decisions-power is morality, morality is power. This oversimplification increases the chances of nuclear devastation. We must therefore hope that educators and educational institutions have the capacity, the commitment and the time to instill moral sensitivity as an integral part of the complex pattern of function human intelligence. Some way must be found in the training of human beings to give them the assurance to love, the security to be kind, and the integrity required for a functional empathy. 
3. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow. Use you own language. 
     In the height of the Enlightenment, men influenced by the new political theories of the era launched two of the largest revolutions in history. These two conflicts, on two separate continents, were both initially successful in forming new forms of government. And yet, the two conflicts, though merely a decade apart, had radically different conclusions. How do two wars inspired by more or less the same ideals end up so completely different? Why was the American Revolution largely a success and the French Revolution largely a failure? Historians have pointed to myriad reasons - far too various to be listed here. However, the most frequently cited are worth mentioning. For one, the American Revolution was far removed from the Old World; that is, since it was on a different continent, other European nations did not attempt to interfere with it.
     However, in the French Revolution, there were immediate cries for war from neighboring nations. Early on, for instance, the ousted king attempted to flee to neighboring Austria and the army waiting there. The newly formed French Republic also warred with Belgium, and a conflict with Britain loomed. Thus, the French had the burden not only of winning a revolution but also defending it from outside. The American simply had to win a revolution. 
     Secondly, the American Revolution seemed to have a better chance of success from the get-go, due to the fact the Americans already saw themselves as something other than British subjects. Thus, there was already a uniquely American character, so, there was not as loud a cry to preserve the British way of life. In France, several thousands of people still supported the king, largely because the king was seen as essential part of French life. And when the king was first ousted and then killed, some believed that character itself was corrupted. Remember, the Americans did not oust a king or kill him - they merely separated from him. 
     Finally, there is a general agreement that the French were not as unified as the Americans, who, for the most part, put aside their political difference until after they had already formed a new nation. The French, despite their Tennis Court Oath, could not do so. Infighting led to inner turmoil, civil war, and eventually the Reign of Terror, in which political dissidents were executed in large numbers. Additionally, the French people themselves were not unified. The nation had so much stratification that it was impossible to unite all of them - the workers, the peasants, the middle-class, the nobles, the clergy - into one cause. And the attempts to do so under a new religion, the Divine Cult of Reason, certainly did not help. The Americans, remember, never attempted to change the society at large; rather, they merely attempted to change the government. 
(i) Why and how did the Reign of Terror happen?
(ii) In what ways does the author suggest that the American Revolution was easier to complete than the French Revolution?
(iii) Of the challenges mentioned facing the French revolutionaries, which do you think had the greatest impact on their inability to complete a successful revolution? Why?
(iv) Of the strengths mentioned aiding the American revolutionaries, which do you thing had the greatest impact on their ability to compete a successful revolution? Why?
4. Write a comprehensive note (250-300 words) on any ONE of the following. 
(i) Actions speak louder than words
(ii) Girls are more intelligent than boys
(iii) First deserve, then desire
(iv) Nothing is certain unless it is achieved
5. Use only FIVE of the following sentences which illustrate their meanings. 
(i) To bring grist to the mill
(ii) To keep one's fingers crossed
(iii) With one's tongue in one's cheek
(iv) A storm in the tea cup
(v) To talk through one's hat
(vi) Hum and Haw
(vii) To let the grass grow under one's feet
(viii) Penny wise and pound foolish
6. Correct only FIVE of the following. 
(i) Each furniture in this display is on sale for half price
(ii) He is abusing the money of his father. 
(iii) The duties of the new secretary are to answer the telephone, to type letters and bookkeeping. 
(iv) The new models are not only less expensive but more efficient also
(v) He complied with the requirement that all graduate students in education should write a thesis. 
(vi) No sooner we left the shop it began to rain.
(vii) The population of Karachi is greater than any other city in Pakistan. 
45. YEAR 2015

2. Make a precis of the following text and suggest a suitable title. (20)
     In studding the breakdowns of civilizations, the writer has subscribed to the conclusion - no new discovery! - that war has proved to have been the proximate cause of the breakdown of every civilization which is know for certain to have broken down, in so far as it has been possible to analyze the nature of these breakdowns and to account for their occurrence. Like other evils war has no insidious way of appearing not intolerable until it has secured such a stranglehold upon the lives of its addicts that they no longer have the power to escape from its grip when its deadlines has become manifest. In the early stages of civilization's growth, the cost of wars in suffering and destruction might seem to be exceeded by the benefits occurring from the winning of wealth and power and the cultivation of the "military virtues"; and, in this phase of history, states have often found themselves able to indulge in war with one another with something like impunity even for the defeated party. War does not begin to reveal its malignity till the war making society has begun to increase its economic ability to exploit physical nature and its political ability to organize manpower; but, as soon as this happens, the good of war to which the growing society has long since been dedicated proves himself a Moloch by devouring an ever larger share of the increasing fruits of man's industry and intelligence in the process of taking an ever larger toll of life and happiness; and, when the society's growth in efficiency reaches a point at which it becomes capable of mobilizing a lethal quantum of its energies and resources of military use then war reveals itself as being a cancer which is bound to prove fatal to its victim unless he can cut it out and cast it from him, since its malignant tissues have now learnt to grow faster that the healthy tissues on which they feed. 
     In the past when this danger-point in the history of the relations between war and civilization has been reached and recognized, serious efforts have sometimes been made to get rid of war in time to save society, and these endeavours have been apt to take one or other of two alternative directions. Salvation cannot, of course, be sought anywhere except in the working of the consciences of individual human beings; but individuals have a choice between trying to achieve their aims through direct action as private citizens and trying to achieve then through indirect action as citizen of states. Personal refusal to lend himself in any way to any war waged by his state for any purpose and in any circumstances is a line of attack against the institution of war that is likely to appeal to an ardent and self-sacrificing nature; by comparison, the alternative peace strategy of seeking to persuade and accustom governments to combine in jointly resisting aggression when it comes and in trying to remove its stimuli before hand may seem a circuitous and unheroic line of attack on the problem. Yet experience up to date indicates unmistakably, in the present writer's opinion, that the second of these two hard roads is by far the more promising.
Q.3. Read the following text carefully and answer the questions below. 
     Experience has quite definitely shown that some reason for holding a belief are much more likely to be justified by the event than others. It might naturally be supposed, for instance, that the best of all reason for a belief was a strong conviction of certainty accompanying the belief. Experience, however, shows that this is not so, and that as a matter of fact, conviction by itself is more likely to mislead than it is to guarantee truth. On the other hand, lack of assurance and persistent hesitation to come to any belief whatever are equally poor guarantee that the few beliefs which are arrived at are sound. Experience also shows that assertion, however long continued, although it is unfortunately with many people an effective enough means of inducing belief, is not an any way a ground for holding it. The method which has proved effective, as a matter of actual fact, in providing of firm foundation for belief wherever it has been capable of application, is what is usually called the scientific method. I firmly believe that the scientific method, although slow and never claiming to lead to complete truth, is the only method which is the long run will give satisfactory foundations for beliefs. It consists in demanding facts as the only basis for conclusions, and inconsistently and continuously testing any conclusions which may have been reached, against the test of new facts and, wherever possible, by the crucial test of experiment. It consists also in full publication of the evidence on which conclusions are based, so that other workers may be assisted in new researches, or enabled to develop their own interpretations and arrive at possibly very different conclusions.
     There are, however, all sorts of occasions on which the scientific method is not applicable. That method involves slow testing, frequent suspension of judgment, restricted conclusions. The exigencies of everyday life, on the other hand, often make it necessary to act on a hast balancing of admittedly incomplete evidence, to take immediate action, and to draw conclusions in advance of evidence. It is also true that such action will always be necessary, and necessary in respect of ever larger issues; and this in spite of the fact that one of the most important trends of civilization is to remove sphere after sphere of life out of the domain of such intuitive judgment into the domain of rigid calculation based on science. It is here that belief pays its most important role. When we cannot be certain, we must proceed in part by faith - faith not only in the validity of our own capacity of making judgments, but also in the existence of certain other realities, pre-eminently moral and spiritual realities. It has been said that faith consists in acting always on the nobler hypothesis; and though this definition is a trifle rhetorical, it embodies a seed of real truth.
(i) Give the meaning of the underlined phrases as they are used in the passage.
(ii) What justification does the author claim for the belief in the scientific method?
(iii) Do you gather from the passage that conclusions reached by the scientific method should be considered final? Give reasons for your answer.
(iv) In what circumstances, according to the author, is it necessary to abandon the scientific method?
(v) How does the basis of 'intuitive judgment' differ from the scientific decision?
4. Write a comprehensive note (250-300 words) on any ONE of the following topics.
(i) Education should be for life, not for livelihood.
(ii) The art of being tactful
(iii) Human nature is seen at its best adversity
(iv) Spare the rod and spoil the child.
5. Use any FIVE of the following in sentences which illustrate their meaning. 
(i) Itching palm
(ii) The primrose path
(iii) Break one's fall
(iv) Wash one's hands of
(v) To become reconcile to
(vi) To militate against
(vii) To be cognizant of
(viii) Wages of sin
(b) Explain the difference between the following word pairs by defining each word. (Do only FIVE)
(i) Plaintiff, Plaintive
(ii) Valet, Varlet
(iii) Monitor, Mentor
(iv) Complacent, Complaisant
(v) Penitence, Penance
(vi) Crevice, Crevasse
(vii) Beneficent, Beneficial
6. (a) Correct only FIVE of the following sentences. 
(i) Have either of you seen my pen?
(ii) On attempting to restore the picture to its original condition, almost irreparable change was discovered.
(iii) The child is the prettiest of the two.
(iv) I was annoyed arriving late, also his rather insolent manner put me out of temper.
(v) He is anxious not only to acquire knowledge, but also eager to display it.
(vi) If he was here now, we should have no difficulty.
(vii) Due to unforeseen environments, we shall have to leave early.
(viii) People have and still do disagree on this matter.
(b) Rewrite ONE of the following passages, converting what is in direct speech into indirect, and what is in indirect speech into direct. 
(i) Just as we came inside of the valley Jamil met us, -- "yes, the valley is all very fine, but do you know there is noting to eat?"
"Nonsense; we can eat anything here."
"Well, the brown bread's two months old, and there's nothing else but potatoes."
"There must be milk anyhow."
"Yes, there was milk, he supposed."
(ii) Miss Andleed said she thought English food was lovely, and that she was preparing a questionnaire to be circulated to the students of the university, with the view to finding out their eating preferences.
"But the students won't fill a questionnaire," said Miriam.
"Won't fill up questionnaire?" cried Miss Andleed, taken aback.
"No", said Miriam, "they won't. As a nation we are not, questionnaire-conscious."
"Well, that's too bad", said Miss Andaleeb.
46. Year 2016

Q.2. Write a precis of the following passage in about 120 words and suggest a suitable title. (20)
     During my vacation last May, I had a hard time choosing a tour. Flights to Japan, Hong Kong and Australia are just too common. What I wanted was somewhere exciting and exotic, a place where I could be spared from the holiday tour crowds. I was so happy when John called up, suggesting a trip to Cherokee, a country in the state of Oklahoma. I agreed and went off with the preparation immediately. We took a flight to Cherokee and visited a town called Qualla Boundary surrounded by magnificent mountain scenery, the town painted a paradise before us. With its Oconaluftee Indian Village reproducing tribal crafts and lifestyles of the 18th century and the outdoor historical pageant Unto These Hills playing six times weekly in the summer nights. Qualla Boundary tries to present a brief image of the Cherokee past to the tourists. Despite the language barrier, we managed to find our way to the souvenir shops with the help of the natives. The shops were filled with rubber tomahawks and colorful traditional war bonnets, made of dyed turkey feathers. Tepees, cone-shaped tents made from animal skin, were also pitched near the shops. "Welcome! Want to get anything?" We looked up and saw a middle-aged man smiling at us. We were very surprised by his fluent English. He introduced himself as George and we ended up chatting till lunch time when he invited us for lunch at a nearby coffee shop. "Sometimes, I've to work from morning to sunset during the tour season. Anyway, this is still better off than being a woodcutter...." Remembrance weighted heavy on George's mind and he went on to tell us that he used to cut firewood for a living but could hardly make ends meet. We learnt from him that the Cherokees do not depend solely on trade for survival. During the tour off-peak period, the tribe would have to try out other means for income. One of the successful ways is the "Bingo Weekend". On the Friday afternoons of the Bingo weekends, a large bingo hall was opened, attracting huge crowds of people to the various kinds of games like the Super Jackpot and the Warrior Game Special. According to George, these forms of entertainment fetch them great returns. our final stop in Qualla Boundary was at the museum where arts, ranging from the simple hand-woven baskets to wood and stone carvings of wolves, ravens and other symbols of Cherokee cosmology are displayed. Back at home, I really missed the place and I would of course look forward to the next trip to another exotic place.
3. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow. (20)
     The New Year is the time for resolution. Mentally, at least most of us could compile formidable lists of 'do's and don'ts'. The same old favorites recur year in and year out with the children, do a thousand and one job about the house, be nice to people we don't like, drive carefully, and take the dog for a walk every day. Past experience has taught us that certain accomplishments are beyond attainment. If we remain deep rooted liars, it is only because we have so often experienced the frustration that results from failure. Most of us fail in our efforts at self-improvement because our schemes are too ambitious and we never have time to carry them out. We also make the fundamental error of announcing our resolution to everybody so that we look even more foolish when we slip back into our bad old ways. Aware of there pitfalls, this year I attempted to keep my resolution to myself I limited to two modest ambitions, to do physical exercise every morning and to read more in the evening. An overnight party on New Year's Eve provided me with a good excuse for not carrying out either of these new resolutions on the first day of the year, but on the second, I applied myself assiduously to the task. The daily exercise lasted only eleven minutes and I proposed to do them early in the morning before anyone had got up. The self-discipline required to drag myself out of bed eleven minutes earlier than usual was considerable. Nevertheless, I managed to creep down into the living room for two days before anyone found me out. After jumping about in the carpet and twisted the human frame into uncomfortable positions. I sat down at the breakfast table in an exhausted condition. It was this that betrayed me. The next morning the whole family trooped into watch the performance. That was really unsettling but i fended off the taunts and jibes of the family good humoredly and soon everybody got used to the idea. However, my enthusiasm waned, the time I spent at exercises gradually diminished. Little by little the eleven minutes fell to zero. By January 10th I was back to where I had started from. I argued that if I spent less time exhausting myself at exercises in the morning, I would keep my mind fresh for reading when I got home from work. Resisting the hypnotizing effect of television, I sat in my room for a few evenings with my eyes glued to a book. One night, however, feeling cold and lonely, I went downstairs and sat in front of the television pretending to read. That proved to by my undoing, for I soon got back to the old bad habit of dozing off in front of the screen, I still haven't given up my resolution to do more reading. In fact, I have just bought a book entitled 'How to Read a Thousand Words a Minute'. Perhaps it will solve my problem, but I just have not had time to read it.
(i) Why most of us fail in our efforts for self-improvement? (5)
(ii) Why is it a basic mistake to announce our resolution to everybody? (5)
(iii) Why did the writer not carry out his resolution on New Year's Day? (5)
(iv) Find out the words in the above passage which convey the similar meaning to the following (5)
Intimidating, Peril, Dwindle, Repel, Barb
4. (a) Correct only FIVE of the following. (5)
(i) We were staying at my sister's cape's code vacation home.
(ii) She recommended me that I take a few days off from work.
(iii) I tried to explain him the problem, but he had difficulty understanding me.
(iv) I'll do the grocery shopping for your grandma, Lucy said.
(v) We took a tent, a cooler, and a sleeping bag.
(vi) I don't know why you didn't go. If I were you, I should have gone.
(vii) Kevin says he stopped to travel internationally because of his family.
(viii) Don't run! Mr. Salman shouted.
(b) Choose the punctuation mark that is need in each of the following sentences. (5)
(i) "It isn't fair!" shouted Martin. Coach Lewis never lets me start the game!"
(ii) Maureen's three sisters, Molly, Shannon, and Patricia are all spending the summer at their grandmother's beach house.
(iii) For the centre pieces, the florist recommended the following flowers daisies, tulips, daffodils, and hyacinths.
(iv) Lily is an accomplished gymnast she won three medals in her last competition.
(v) Everyone was shocked when Mas Smithfield - a studious, extremely bright high school senior decided that college was not for him.
5. (a) Choose the analogy of the words written in capital letters (Any FIVE) (5)
(i) SLAPSTICK: LAUGHTER (Fallacy: Dismay, Genre: Mystery, Satire :Anger, Horror: Fear)
(ii) CONVICTION: INCARNATION (Reduction: Diminution, Induction: Amelioration, Radicalization: Estimation, Marginalization: Intimidation)
(iii) PROFESSOR: ERUDITE (Aviator: Licensed, Inventor: Imaginative, Procrastinator: Conscientious, Overseer: Wealthy)
(iv) METAPHOR: SYMBOL (Pentameter:  Poem, Rhythm:  Melody, Nuance: Song, Analogy: Comparison)
(v) SPY: CLANDESTINE (Accountant: Meticulous, Furrier: Rambunctious, Lawyer: Ironic, Shepherd: Garrulous
(vi) VERVE: ENTHUSIASM (Loyalty: Duplicity, Devotion: Reverence, Intensity: Colour, Eminence: Anonymity)
(vii) DELTOID: MUSCLE (Radius: Bone, Brain: Nerve, Tissue: Organ, Blood: Vein)
(viii) DEPENDABLE: CAPRICIOUS (Fallible: Cantankerous, Erasable: Obtuse, Malleable: Limpid, Capable: Inept)
(b) Rewrite the following dialogue, written in indirect speech, in a paragraph form. (5)
Helen: Mr West, what's happened to John?
Mr West: He's left the company.
Helen: Why has he done that?
Mr West: He asked me for a rise but I didn't give it to him.
Helen: Why didn't you give him a rise?
Mr West: Because he was lazy.
Helen: Has he found another job?
Mr West: Yes, he is working in a film company.
Helen: What is his salary like?
Mr West: I think he earns quite a lot.
Helen: Does he like the new job?
Mr West: I don't know.
6. (a) Explain the difference between the following word pairs by using each word in your own sentences. (Any FIVE) (5)
(i) Adverse, Averse
(ii) Altogether, All together
(iii) Allude, Elude
(iv) Braise, Braze
(v) Curb, Kerb
(vi) Faze, Phase
(vii) Maybe, May be
(viii) Moat, Mote
(b) Use any FIVE of the following in sentences which illustrate their meaning. (5)
(i) Smash hit
(ii) Murphy's law
(iii) Place in the Sun
(iv) Wooden spoon
(v) Go bananas
(vi) Beard the lion in his den
(vii) Groan inwardly
(viii) Chicken out
7. Translate the following Urdu paragraph into English by keeping in view figurative/ idiomatic expression. (10)